Commercial goat farming in India is becoming very popular day by day. As goat farming is a proven highly profitable business idea so, the popularity of this business is increasing rapidly in India. It is also one of the finest and established livestock management department in the country. Huge market demand and proper spread ensures fast profitability and sustainability of this business for long term. But the commercial goat farming and it’s market in India have been adopted by some large and progressive producers, industrialists, businessman and large companies. This type producers or large companies control a citable portion of the total market. Continuously increasing demand of goat meat and milk in India is a hope for widely spreading this industry. In India, the goats are among the main meat producing animals. Most of the people prefer goat meat and has a huge domestic demand. Along with meat production, goats are also very suitable for milk, fiber and skin production. They also produce high quality manure which helps to increase the crop production. Goat has a great and important contribution in the rural economy. Specifically in mountainous, semi-arid and arid regions of India. There are more than 25% goats among the total livestock in the country. Here I am describing about some highly productive goat breeds, benefits and difficulties of goat farming in India.
Benefits of Goat Farming In India
There are some benefits of domestic or commercial goat farming. If you want to start goat farming business then you must read the benefits of raising goats.
- Goats are multi purpose animal which can produce milk, meat, fiber, skin together.
- Compared to cow and other livestock farming, goat farming requires less space and additional facilities. They have a less demand of housing and other management. In small scale production they are also able to share their homes with their owners and his/her other livestock.
- Production costs like infrastructure, feeding and treatment are less.
- You don’t have to think about marketing your farm products. Because there are already an established market in the country for marketing your products.
- It is really very easy to maintain a goat farm compared to other farm animals.
- Goats can adopt themselves with almost all types of agro-climatic conditions. And diseases are less in goats.
- They are smaller in size but reach slaughter age faster.
- Goat products like meat and milk has no religious taboo. And highly accepted for consumption throughout the world.
Starting Goat Farming in India
If you want to start goat farming in India, then you must have to go with some step by step process. First of all try to have a training on goat farming from your nearest livestock farming or training center. After that, do the rest process for starting domestic or commercial goat farming in India.
Select A Suitable Location
Almost all areas of India are very suitable for goat farming. You can select a land for goat farming near your home or select a land which has all types of facilities for successful goat farming business. While selecting land for starting goat farming business, consider the followings.
- Select a suitable land that has a great source of fresh and clean water.
- Suitable for grass, crop and other green plants production. This are used as goat feed to reduce supplementary feeding cost.
- The selected land will not be too far from the market or town.
- Ensure there is a suitable market near your selected area for purchasing necessary commodities and medicines.
- Find out if there are any other goat farm located in your selected area.
- A suitable market with high demands of goat products is available near the selected farm area.
- Try to select land in village area. Because, lands and labors can easily be found within very cheap rate in village areas.
- Ensure availability of all types of veterinary service in the area. If not available, stock all types of necessary vaccines and medicines in your farm.
- Good transportation system so that you can easily sell your products and buy necessary commodities from nearest market or town.
Products You Want to Produce
Before starting goat farming in India, determine the goat products that you want to produce from your farm. At a same time you can produce tasty meat and milk, useful and valuable skins, fiber or manure from the goat. Determine what type of goat products you want to produce and do the next steps. You can easily go with meat and dairy goat farming business. Because, goat meat and milk has a great demand in India. And setting up commercial meat or dairy goat farming business is very profitable than skin or fiber production. Before starting, visit your nearest local market and try to understand which goat product has a great demand and price. Then take a decision and choose suitable breeds for your production.
There are numerous goat breeds available in India. But all goats are not suitable for commercial production. Some goat breeds are highly productive and very suitable for commercial farming in India.
- Jamunapari Goat: Jamunapari goat is a native goat breed of India. It is a highly milk and meat productive goat. But they are raised mainly for their highly milk production capacity. A female goat can produce about 2-3 litter milk daily. An adult male weights about 65-90 kg and female goat weights about 40-60 kg.
- Boer Goat: Boer goat is a South African goat breed but suitable for farming in India. They are meat productive goat breed. And adult Boer goat weights about 110-115 kg and a female goat weights about 90-100 kg.
- Black Bengal Goat: Black Bengal goat is a Bangladeshi goat breed. This goat breed is considered as an important small livestock in Bangladesh. They are very suitable for meat, milk, skin and fiber production. This goat breed can adopt themselves with almost all types of climate easily. Their meat and milk are very tasty and has a great demand.
- Beetal Goat: Beetal goat is a native Indian goat breed. They are highly milk productive goat breed. Also suitable for highly meat production. They are able to produce about 2.5-4 litter milk daily. An adult male goat weights about 65 kg and female about 45 kg.
- Saanen Goat: Saanen goat is a dairy goat breed of Switzerland. But suitable for commercial milk production in India. They can produce milk highly like Jamunapari and Alpine goat. They are able to produce about 3.8 litters milk daily. An adult male Saanen goat weights around 70-90 kg and female around 60-70 kg.
Housing is very important for commercial goat farming in India. But, most of the goat farmers in India used to raise goats in small scale and keep them with their other livestock animals like sheep or cattle. This type of goat rearing system can’t produce maximum production. So, for setting up commercial goat farm, you must have to build a dedicated goat housing system. Nowadays, goat housing design with stall feeding system is very popular and this system ensures high production and profit than other traditional systems. However, consider the followings while making house for commercial goat farming in India.
- For profitable commercial production, you must have to keep your goats in clean pens that is free of dampness, drafts and pests like flies and rodents.
- Make proper ventilation system and ensure flow of sufficient fresh air and light.
- Make suitable drainage and sanitation system inside the house. So that, you can easily clean the house.
- Try to make the house in higher place to keep the house always dry.
- The house must have to be free from entrancing flood water and rain water directly inside the house. Because, the goats hates rain.
- Make proper temperature control system so that you can easily keep your goats warm in winter season and moderate temperature in summer season.
- Keep all the feeding and watering equipment neat and clean.
- Goat housing design vary according to the production and breeds. Make effective goat housing design according to your desired production and breeds.
Goats can grow well and produce maximum by feeding well balanced and nutritious food. Always ensure availability of all types of necessary ingredients in their food. Most successful modern goat farmer feed their goats 12% to 18% protein containing feeds. Add all types of necessary vitamins, minerals and other necessary ingredients in proper ratio. Ensure sufficient supply of green grasses or other green foods. Never try to feed them contaminated or expired foods. Making a pasture or grazing place will be effective for higher production. Ensure sufficient amount of clean and fresh water available according to the daily demands of goat along with providing good foods.
Availability of veterinary service is a must for setting up commercial goat farming business in India. So, ensure proper veterinary service for your goats. Stock all types of necessary vaccines and medicines in your farm. This will help you if something goes wrong and maximizing productions from commercial goat farming in India.
Special Care & Management
Always take good care of your goats. Monitor all their activities. Separate the weak goats from healthy one and provide necessary treatment. Vaccinate them timely to prevent unwanted problems and for keeping your goats healthy and productive. Never let them to go outside the farm area. In stall feeding system, always feed them fresh and nutritious food with sufficient amount of green elements. Never try to mix contaminated or polluted food elements with their regular food. Take special care to the breeding bucks and does. Take special care to the kids for few weeks. Always keep a record of all your income and expenditures. And finally start raising goats and you will learn the rest special care and management that will make you success in commercial goat farming business in India.
If everything goes well, now it’s time to market the products. Good marketing strategies can maximize benefits from goat farming in India. There is already an established and suitable market for selling all your goat products in India. And all types of goat products like meat and milk has a huge demand in India. Taking some special techniques can maximize profits. For example if you sell your meat goats during some religious festivals like various types of Puja, Eid etc. Almost all local market of India has a great demand of goat milk and meat. So, you don’t have to worry about marketing the products. Just start raising goats commercially.
Difficulties Of Goat Farming In India
There are some difficulties of goat farming in India. The main difficulties which are obstructing goat farming are listed beneath.
- Lack of sufficient knowledge about goat farming effectively. And the people are not using modern farming methods in goat rearing business.
- Absence of specially-designed vehicles which are very useful for transporting live goats from one place to another.
- The beginners without any practical goat rearing training faces high mortality rate in goats due to some fatal goat diseases like PPR, pneumonia, diarrhea, tetanus etc. As they lose money during first time, they don’t want to start rearing goats again.
- The goat producers can’t choose the right breed for production due to lack of knowledge. As a result they can’t produce their desired production and lose their interest in goat farming. Choosing right breed can increase the production of a farm greatly.
- Non-availability of all vaccines(especially PPR) and veterinary doctor throughout the country.
- In some regions of India the producers don’t get proper price for their farm products. Which discourage them in large production.
- Lack of capital. Most of the people don’t have the ability to buy sufficient number (50-100) of goats for starting the business. A farm of 50-100 goats can certainly generate a handsome income.
Goat farming business is one of the traditional occupations of some Indian people. It is also the only economic activity of some people of rural areas. Like poultry farming, goat farming business is also very profitable and can employ a large number of unemployed educated people. Which will help to eradicate unemployment problem from the country. Wish your happy goat farming business in India.