Pig Farming: Business Plan For Beginners

Commercial pig farming is a very old business throughout the world. It’s very easy to raise the pigs, and it’s a great way to make good profits within a short period of time. If you are searching for starting pig farming business, then you are in the right place. Here we are going discuss everything about this profitable pig production business.

Pig farming is actually the raising and breeding of domestic pigs as livestock principally for food. Pig or hog farming is a branch of animal husbandry. And it’s a very popular agribusiness throughout the world.

Pigs are well adapted to a wide variety of climatic conditions, and they can be raised in many different ways. They can be raised in intensive commercial units, extensive system, or in commercial free range systems.

Some people also keep one or several pigs as pets. But the main aim of commercial production is food production (such as pork, bacon, gammon etc.).

Previously, a few pigs were kept and were closely associated with the residence of the owner. They were valued as a source of meat and fat, and also for their ability to convert inedible food into meat.

They were often fed household food waste when kept on a homestead. In some areas, pigs have been farmed to dispose of municipal garbage on a large scale.[1]

Today, intensive pig farming system is most popular. This system is very popular mainly due to the potential to raise a large amount of pigs in a very cost-efficient manner.

In the developed countries, commercial pig farms are available which raising thousands of pigs in climate-controlled buildings.

However, pigs are among the most popular form of livestock, with more than one billion pigs butchered each year throughout the world (100 million of them in the USA).

The majority of the pigs are used for human food, but they also supply skin, fat and other materials for use as clothing, ingredients for processed foods, cosmetics, and also medical use.

Today, commercial pig farming business is popular in many countries. But the main pig products consuming countries are in Asia. Despite having the world’s largest herd, China is a net importer of pigs, and has been increasing it’s imports during it’s economic development.

Largest exporters of pigs are the United States, the European Union and Canada. For an example, more than half of Canadian pig production (22.8 million pigs) was exported in 2008, going to 143 countries.

However, commercial pig farming is a lucrative business. And you can start this business if you have all the required facilities.

Advantages of Pig Farming Business

Pigs are popular and raised throughout the world. It’s an easy and profitable business. Here we are trying to describe the top advantages of starting pig farming business.

  • Commercial pig farming is not a new business. Many people are already doing this business for earning their livelihood.
  • As compared to other livestock animals, pigs generally grow faster. They have higher feed to meat conversion efficiency.
  • They can convert all types of inedible feeds, forages, certain grains byproduct obtained from mills, damaged feeds, meat byproducts, garbage etc. into valuable, nutritious and delicious meat.
  • You can feed your pigs with almost everything including grains, forage, fruits, vegetables, damaged food, garbage, sugarcane, pumpkin, carrots, potatoes, taro etc. Sometimes pigs can even eat grasses and other green plants or roots.
  • Most of the pigs become ready for selling earlier than other animals.
  • A sow can be bred for first time at it’s 8-9 months of age. The sows can farrow twice a year, and in each farrowing they can give birth to 8-9 piglets.
  • Setting up a small scale pig production business is relatively easy.
  • Commercial production require high investment. But the ROI is good, and you will get back your invested money very soon.
  • The ratio of total consumable meat and total body weight is higher in pigs. You can get around 60 to 80 percent consumable meat from a live pig.
  • Pig meat is one of the most tasty and nutritious meat. It is higher in fat and energy.
  • Pig manure is a great fertilizer and widely used in crop production.
  • Pig fat is not a waste product. It has also good demand in poultry feed, paints, soap ad chemical industries.
  • Depending on the breed, a pig reach slaughtering weight within their 7 to 9 months of age.
  • Pig meat already has very good market. You can also consider exporting your products (such as bacon, ham, lard, pork, sausages etc.).
  • Small scale pig farming business can be a great way of utilizing your family labor. Women and children can raise a few pigs.
  • As commercial production is highly profitable, so it can be a great employment source for the rural people. Especially, educated but unemployed young people can take this business for making employment opportunity.
  • If you consume pig products, then raising pigs in your own farm can be a great way for enjoying those products.

How to Start Pig Farming Business

As we have mentioned earlier, starting and operating a pig farming business is very easy and simple. Even the beginners can also start this business in small scale. But having a training will be better for commercial production.

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Here we are trying to describe more information about starting and operating a successful pig farming business from selecting breeds, to caring and marketing.

Farm Land Selection

First of all, you have to select a very good location for starting this business. It will be better, if the land is far from residential area.

Selecting a calm and noise and pollution free place will be good for better production of pigs.

Ensure availability of sufficient amount of clean and fresh water in the area. Good transportation system is a must.

Good transportation service will help you to market your products easily, and it will also be much easier to buy the necessary things from market.

Make An Effective Business Plan

Making an effecting business plan is very important for successful pig farming business. A viable business plan helps to run the farm smoothly and also ensures maximum profits from your production business. You can ask for help from an expert for making an excellent pig farming business plan.

Select Right Breed

Selecting the right breed is very important for successful pig farming business. So, choose the breed wisely.

You should choose those breeds which are easily available in your area. Local breeds are also a good option, but production will be less.

Try to consult with some existing producers in your area, and ask for help for selecting the right breed for your business.

Some common and popular pig breeds for commercial production are Yorkshire, Landrace, Duroc, Hampshire, Spotted, Poland China, Chester White and Berkshire.


Making a good house with the availability of all required facilities is very important for successful pig farming business. A good house not only keeps the pigs healthy, but also helps them to stay free from adverse weather conditions.

Install a good ventilation system, and ensure flow of sufficient amount of fresh air and light inside the house.

Make proper facility for keeping the boar, farrowing, weaner and dry sow separated from each other. Required space for each type of pigs is listed in the following chart.

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Feeding the pigs with good quality and nutritious food is the most important part of commercial pig production. Good food not only help to keep the pigs healthy, but also help them to grow better and gain weight faster.

You can feed your pigs with almost everything. You can either feed them ready made commercial feeds or you can prepare the feeds of your own.

You can select the most economical ingredients for preparing the feeds. Basic ingredients of pig feed are oat, grains, maize, wheat, rice, sorghum and other millets. You can add some protein supplements like oil cakes, fishmeal and meat meal.

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Add all types of mineral supplements and vitamins. Add antibiotic supplements at the rate of 11 mg per kg. It would be better if you can allow your pigs to browse in the pasture and feed fresh green legumes.

The best way to feed the pigs of a farm, is to keep them and feed them separately. That means, keep the different aged pigs separately and feed them according to their age and weight.

Along with feeding nutritious food, always serve them sufficient amount of clean and fresh water. Providing adequate water is very important for good growth of the pigs.

Food demand varies according to the age and body weight of pigs. See the chart below to learn about the required daily feeds according to the body weight of different aged pigs.

Feeding Amount According to the Body Weight of Pigs
Body Weight of PigsDaily Required Food (kg) Per Pig


Pigs are naturally very good breeders. They will breed easily if you keep good ratio of sows and boars.

Pigs generally reach breeding age faster. Both boars and sows become suitable for breeding within their 8 months of age.

Heat period of a sow lasts for 2 to 3 days. But the first day during the heat period of a gilt is the best time to breed, and the second day is the best day for a sow.

A lactating sow become ready for breeding again 2-10 days after weaning. Gestation period of pigs is not more than 115 days. Generally, a sow can give birth of piglets twice a year, and about 8-12 piglets each time.


Taking good care of the animals is very important for getting good production from your business. Although, pigs are very hardy and require less caring and other management.

Ensure hygiene system inside the house. This will help the animals to stay free from all types of health hazard and diseases.

Keeping the boars and sows separated from each other is a great idea. All the boars are not necessary for breeding. So, keep some for breeding and you can castrate the remaining pigs when they reach 3 to 4 weeks of age.

Avoiding providing of contaminated feeds and polluted water will be good for the health of the pigs. Take extra care of the pregnant and lactating sows.

Vaccinate them on a regular basis to keep them safe from swine diseases. Always try to keep good contact with a vet in your area. Keeping the pigs in a calm and quiet place will be good. And don’t allow visitors inside your farm.


Marketing pigs or pig products is very easy. Because both pigs and pig products already have a very good market demand and value. So, you will probably be able to easily sell your products. Although, it is always recommended to determine your marketing strategies before staring any agribusiness.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

There are many questions related to pig farming business. Especially beginner pig farmers ask many questions. Here we are trying to answer some of the questions that pig farmers ask. Hope you will find yours, but if not, don’t hesitate to ask.

Is pig farming profitable?

Yes, definitely! Diseases and other major health problems are less in pigs. And the pigs generally grow faster. So, pig farming is highly profitable.

Small scale or commercial farming which is more profitable?

Of course, commercial pig production is much profitable. But it requires huge investment. If you have capital issue, you should start with small scale production.

What is pig farming called?

Pig farming is called piggery (where pigs are raised).

How long do pigs take to grow?

It actually depends on the breed you are raising. Most of the commercial pig breeds take around 6 months for reaching market weight.

How many pigs should I start with?

It actually depends on many factors, especially your budget. You can start as less as 2 pigs or as many as hundreds or even thousands of pigs. The more number of pigs you raise the more man power and money you need.

Is pig farming a good investment?

Yes, pig farming is a profitable business. So it is a good investment.

Which is the best pig breed for commercial production?

Some common and popular pig breeds for commercial production are Yorkshire, Landrace, Duroc, Hampshire, Spotted, Poland China, Chester White and Berkshire.

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Which pig breed grows fastest?

A crossbred pig grows faster than any other breeds.

What are the advantages of pig farming?

There are numerous advantages of pig farming business. We have already listed the top advantages of this business above.

What are the disadvantages of pig farming business?

High capital requirement, high feeding costs, cannibalism, foul smell are the main disadvantages of commercial pig production business.

How do you feed pigs cheaply?

Allowing your pigs to access pasture is a great way to feed them cheaply.

How many times can a pig get pregnant in a year?

Mamma pigs can usually breed twice a year and produce two healthy litters. Their pregnancy period is short (only about 3 months and 3 weeks), which helps them breed more often.

What food makes pigs grow faster?

Feeding a grain mix of barley, wheat, sorghum and corn will help your pigs grow faster.

What food is good for pigs?

Commercially prepared pig feed is very good for faster growth of your pigs. Actually, pigs can eat all kinds of scraps or leftover food such as mealie-pap, bread, vegetables, fruit and pig pellets.

How much money do you make per pig?

It actually depends on numerous factors. So, it’s very tough to tell the exact amount. But on an average, you can expect between $200 and $500 per pigs if you sell directly to customer.

How Many Pigs Do You Need To Make A Profit?

There is no limit. It can be simply one pig for making small amount of profit. The more pigs you raise, the more the profits will be. It’s simple!

How many pigs per acre?

If you allow your pigs to access pasture, then having around 25 pigs per acre will be good.

What are the common diseases of pigs?

Main diseases of pigs are coccidiosis, exudative dermatitis, respiratory diseases, swine dysentery, mastitis and porcine parvovirus. Consult with a vet in your area for having better recommendation about controlling all these pig diseases.

How long is a pigs labor?

Duration of a pig’s labor ranges from 30 minutes to around or more than 5 hours.

What is a baby pig called?

A baby pig is called as piglet or farrow.

What is a male pig called?

A male pig is called boar.

What is a female pig called?

A female pig is called as a sow.

How long do piglets stay with their mother?

Piglets are frequently removed from their mothers when they are less than 4 weeks of age in commercial pig production systems.

How much feed does a pig eat per day?

It actually depends on the breed. On average a pig will consume between 5 and 7 lbs of food par day.

How much water do pigs need per day?

Daily water needs for pigs range from half gallon to 1.5 gallon per day. Water requirements for breeding swine range from 4 gal/day for gestating females and 6 gal/ day for lactating swine.

Is rice good for pigs?

Yes, pigs love to eat all types of rice, and this can be a great addition to your pigs diet which should consist of high nutritional content.

How much land do you need for a pig?

It is recommended that you plan for around 8 square feet of space per pig for growing pigs.

Any tips for pig farming for beginners?

Always try to feed your pigs with good quality and nutritious food, monitor their health on a regular basis and always try to take good care of them.

Do you have a pig farming project report?

Yes, we have a demo only. Please consult with an expert in your area and ask for help for creating a good project report for you.

Any suggestions on pig farming business plan?

Try to include as many factors as you can in your business plan from starting to marketing.

Any pig farming training centers available?

Yes, pig farming training centers available in many countries around the world. Please consult with your local agriculture extension office for having better recommendations. They will be able to give you better information regarding training.

How to reduce pig feeding costs?

You can reduce pig feeding costs by allowing your pigs to access pasture.

Any suggestion for pig farming housing plan?

Try to keep separate space for pregnant sow, boar and piglets in your housing plan.

What are the pig farming requirements?

Good shelter, very good ventilation, no overheating, no smells, no draft and no dampness are the top requirements for commercial pig rearing business.

What is the difference between swine and pig?

In Britain the term pig refers to all domestic swine, while in the United States it refers to younger swine not yet ready for market and weighing usually less than 82 kg, others being called hogs.

These are the common ways and steps for starting a profitable pig farming business. Raising pigs is really easy and simple. Hope this guide has helped you! Good luck & may God bless you!

19 thoughts on “Pig Farming: Business Plan For Beginners”

    1. You can do pig farming all around the world, where you can grow or buy the food that is neccecary. A lake in the near of you pig farm is a good idear, because the most pigs like to swim and bath in the whater.

      1. Good day Jesper

        I kindly did read and I’m interested in farming .and want to do that farming

        Kindly regards

        Potso Sehularo

  1. I appreciate your efforts… you most have gone through so many research to bring this out… keep the good job.

  2. Very helpful information more so for someone thinking of starting pig farming. Very concise and to the point.

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