Sheep and goat farming in Pakistan is very common and popular. Many people of Pakistan prefer the goat and sheep farming business. Goats are known as ‘poor mans cow’ because of their small size and having good capacity of producing milk and meat highly. There are certain breeds, which are easily maintained and can produce meat or milk highly. So, there is a great opportunities of earning some extra income for the marginal and landless farmer by raising goats.
About 90% of total goat population of the world can be found in the developing countries. And about 58% of total goat population can be found in Asia and Pacific. Asia and Pacific goat population also contribute about 62% skin, 49% milk and 62% meat of total goat meat, milk and skin production.
Goat farming in Pakistan is also playing a significant role in the economy of this country by producing about 275 thousand tons mutton, 21.4 thousand tons hair, 25 million skins and about 851 thousand tons milk annually. And this production contribute about 2.5% of total national income of Pakistan. The production rate is increasing day by day (see the chart below). This huge production is coming from millions of poor, marginal or landless people and some other commercial producers. The goat products, produced in Pakistan are of high quality and has a great demand in the international market.
Benefits of Goat Farming in Pakistan
- Goats are comparatively cheaper to buy and sell than cattle.
- Easy to maintain than any other livestock.
- Reproduction process begins earlier than other animal. And gestation period is very less.
- You can produce wide variety of products including meat, milk, skin, fiber at a same time from goat.
- Goats can survive by consuming low quality food. And in adverse condition they can survive by consuming small amount of food.
- You can easily manage goats with other livestock animals and crop production.
- Raising goats is very easy and simple. Even children and women can easily raise and take good care of them.
- Has a great demand in the market. So, you don’t have to worry about marketing your farm products.
- Goat farming is a very popular, unique and incredible business model in Pakistan.
- The another benefits of starting goat farming in Pakistan is that, ‘goat products has very solid demand in the local and international market’.
- Goat farming in Pakistan costs less than establishing any other livestock animal farming business.
- Require comparatively less labor and management.
- You can easily raise 10 goats in the space and costs required for a cattle.
|Total Goat Population During Different Years in Pakistan|
|Source: Livestock Census, 2006|
Starting Goat Farming In Pakistan
Selecting Farm Location
Selecting a suitable location for your farm is one of the most important part of your goat farming business campaign. Select such a location where all types of necessary facilities are available. Fresh and clean water supply, pasture or proper grazing place, market for purchasing necessary commodities, easy complementary food supply, market near your farm for selling your products, proper veterinary service etc. are the main and necessary facilities for successful goat farming business. While selecting farm land, ensure all those facilities are available in your selected land or area.
Products You Are Going To Produce
It is very essential to determine the desired production from any business. For successful goat farming in Pakistan, make a proper decision of what type of products you are going to produce from your farm. You can commercially produce meat, milk, skin or fiber from your farm. According to the weather of Pakistan raising meat and milk goats are very suitable and profitable.
High quality and healthy goat breed plays an important role in their overall production. Beetal, Barpari, Pak Angora, Dera Din Panah, Chapper, Bilkaneri, Kamori, Ieddy, Kaghani, Nachi, Khurasani, Tappray, Pateri, Kapla Gulabi etc. are very suitable for farming according to the climate of Pakistan. Among the goat breeds Beetal, Dera Din Panah, Kamori, Khurasani are suitable for commercial milk production. Barbari, Chapper, Teddy and some other breeds are highly meat productive. You can select Pak Angora, Bilkaneri, Kaghani etc. goats for fiber production. All goats produce skin. But Beetal, Dera Din Panah and Nachi produce high quality skin.
Housing or sheltering doesn’t affect much in domestic goat rearing. But for commercial goat farming purpose making a suitable house or shelter for goats is a must. For commercial purpose, you can make a fully concrete house or concrete structure with adbestos roof. Always ensure a good drainage system and cleaning facilities inside the house. Ensure sufficient flow of light and fresh air inside the house. Always try to make south faced house.
Goats are unbelievable creatures. They can eat and digest almost everything eatable which they find in front of them. But for good production you can feed them home prepared complementary food with regular green foods. Goats love to eat green foods and leaves. Natural goat food includes tree leaves, leaves of non-legume plans, fresh legumes, flowering, cereals, grasses, roots, silage, natural roughage, hays, dried leaves, fruits, legume seeds and many types of corns. Try to add some more minerals and nutrient elements with their complementary food.
Breeding is also an important factor for successful goat farming business. Nowadays, most of the farmers are using artificial breeding process along with natural breeding. For successful breeding, gather enough information and study as much as possible about goat reproduction.
- Select healthy, diseases free fresh goats for reproduction.
- Proper care and managements are must for continuous reproduction.
- Goats are known as seasonal breeders. August ot March is considered as the usual breeding season of goat.
- Take extra care to the buck, selected for breeding purpose.
Making a pasture or grazing place reduces the food cost and helps to keep your goats healthy. Make a fence surrounding your farm. This will prevent your goats from other animal and they will not be able to go outside.
Care & Management
Along with providing all types of facilities (housing, food etc.), your goats also need some special care and management. Only experienced goat producers can take extra or special care and management for their goats. Start raising goats and gradually you will learn everything related to goat farming.
Availability of proper veterinary service is very essential for livestock farming. Although, goats generally suffers less by diseases. But, you have to be sure about full availability of veterinary. This will help you if something goes wrong.
Marketing goat products is very easy. Because goat’s product has a huge demand in the local and global market. In Pakistan, almost all major cities has proper facility for marketing your products. Goat milk and meat also very popular to the people of this country. Always try to sell your products in those market, where you will get maximum price. But, don’t transport your goats too far for getting higher price. Selling goats during religious festival like EID will ensure maximum price. You can also apply your own techniques for marketing your products.
Finally, you have learned a lot about goat farming in Pakistan. Let me know, if I missed to include something in this guide. To the experienced producer ‘please share your experience and suggestion’.