Commercial pig farming in India for meat production is one of the best and profitable business ideas for the Indian people. There are several highly meat producing pig breeds available around the globe. Some of those are very suitable for commercial meat production according to the weather and climate of India. A few years back, pig farming had a bad image in the society (only socially back warded down-trodden class Indian people used to raise pigs since the time immemorial and they were not respectable people). But at present the scenario has changed tremendously and commercial pig farming in India is no more restricted to lower class people. Now people are conscious about the economic value of pigs like other domestic livestock animals. And higher caste, educated people also started commercial pig farming business in a modern and scientific manner. China, Russia, America, Brazil and West Germany are the world largest pig producing country. In India Uttar Pradesh is the largest pig producing state. However, here I am describing the advantages and required steps for starting commercial pig farming in India.
Advantages of Pig Farming in India:
Pig farming has many advantages. Here, I am shortly describing the main advantages of starting commercial pig farming business in India.
- Pigs grow faster than any other animals. They have higher feed conversion efficiency. That means, they have a great feed to meat converting ratio. They can convert all types of inedible feeds, forages, certain grains byproduct obtained from mills, damaged feeds, meat byproducts, garbage etc. into valuable, nutritious and delicious meat.
- Pigs can eat and consume almost all types of feed including grains, damaged food, forage, fruits, vegetables, garbage, sugarcane etc. Sometimes they even eat grasses and other green plants or roots.
- Pigs become mature earlier than other animals. A sow can be bred for first time at their age of 8-9 months. They can farrow twice a year. And in each farrowing they give birth of 8-12 piglets.
- Setting up pig farming business is easy and it requires little capital/investment for building houses and buying equipment.
- The ratio of total consumable meat and total body weight is higher in pigs. We can get around 60 to 80 percent consumable meat from a live pig.
- Pig meat is also one of the most nutritious and tasty meat. It is higer in fat and energy and lower in water.
- Pig manure is a great and widely used fertilizer. You can use this manure for both crop production and in pond for fish farming purpose.
- Pig fat also has a huge demand in poultry feed, paints, soap and chemical industries. And this demand is continuously increasing.
- Pigs grow faster and has a good ROI (returns of investment) ratio. They reach slaughter age earlier compared to other animal. A pig become suitable for slaughtering purpose at their age of 7-9 months. Within this period they reach marketable weight of 70-100 kg.
- Pig meat has a good domestic demand. We can also earn good income by exporting pig products like bacon, ham, lard, pork, sausages etc. to the foreign countries.
- Pig farming business can be a great income opportunities for the small and landless farmers, unemployed educated or uneducated young people and for the rural women.
- In a word, commercial pig farming can be a great business idea and income source for the people and it can contribute the national income of our country highly.
How to Start Pig Farming in India?
If you want to start commercial pig farming business in India then you must have to learn as much as possible about how to start pig farming business in India. For successful pig farming business you have to go through some step by step process. Here I am shortly describing the required steps for starting commercial pig farming business in India.
Select A Suitable Land
Selecting a suitable land or place is very important and first step for starting pig farming in India. While selecting land for pig farming try to ensure availability of all types of essential facilities for the pigs. Consider the followings while selecting or buying the land.
- Ensure availability of sufficient amount of clean and fresh water in your selected area.
- Select a calm and noise free area.
- Try to select or buy land in rural area. Because land and labors are easily found in rural areas within very cheap rate.
- Consider the facility of making a browsing place for your pigs.
- Presence of a suitable market near your farm area will be very helpful. You will be able to sell your products and buy necessary commodities, vaccines and medications.
- Good transportation system with the market will be very effective.
- While selecting land consider the condition of veterinary service in your area.
Buy Productive Pig Breeds
After selecting or buying a suitable land for your farm, it’s time to buy some highly productive pirg breeds. There are numerous pig breeds available throughout the world. But all of those are not suitable for raising commercially. So, you have to choose the highly productive breeds. Most of the pig farmers of our country are raising low productive small sized pigs. As a result they are not getting desired production. For commercial meat production we can choose some imported highly meat productive pig breeds. Some of those highly productive pig breeds are listed below. They are available in our country and very suitable for commercial pig farming in India.
- Large White Yorkshire: It is a large sized and most extensively used exotic pig breed in India. Their body is solid white colored with erect ears, dished face and snout of medium lengths. An adult boar (male pig) weights around 300 to 400 kg and an adult sow weights around 230 to 320 kg. Large White Yorkshire is an excellent pig breed for the purpose of cross breeding.
- Landrace: Landrace is another highly meat productive pig breed. They have long sized body with long snout and large dropping ears. Their body color is white with black skin spot. They are also excellent for crossbreeding like Large White Yorkshire. An adult boar weights around 270 to 360 kg and an adult sow weights around 200 to 320 kg. Very suitable for commercial pig farming in India.
- Middle White Yorkshire: This pig breed is used by the farmers in some areas of India. They are very fast growing and has a very good carcass quality/dressing percentage. An adult boar weights around 250 to 340 kg and an adult sow weights around 180 to 270 kg.
- Other Breeds: Along with the above breeds, there are other pig breeds too. According to the weather of India some other breeds are suitable for farming. Hampshire, HS X1, Duroc, Indegenous, Ghungroo etc. are suitable for pig farming in India. But Large White Yorkshire, Landrace and Middle White Yorkshire are very suitable for commercial production.
Adequate housing and equipment is very important for successful pig farming business. Housing not only provide shelter but also keep them safe from inclement weather, parasites and various types of pig diseases. While building house for the pigs consider availability of all types of necessary facilities for them. Make proper ventilation system. Make proper facility for keeping the boar, farrowing, weaner and dry sow separated from each other. The required space for each type of pigs are listed in the following chart.
Feeding is the most important part of commercial pig farming in India. Growth, production and animal health depends on feeding high quality and nutritious feed. Select most economical ingredients for preparing feed. The basic ingredients of pig feed are oat, grains, maize, wheat, rice, sorghum and other millets. You can add some protein supplements like oil cakes, fishmeal and meat meal.
Add all types of mineral supplement and vitamins. Add antibiotic supplements at the rate of 11 mg per kg. It would be better if you can allow your pigs to browse in the pasture and feed fresh green legumes. The best way to feed the pigs of a farm is to keep and feed them separately. That means keep the different aged pigs separately and feed them according to their age and weight. Along with feeding nutritious food, always serve them sufficient amount of clean and fresh water.
Food demand varies according to the age and body weight of pigs. See the chart below to learn about the required daily feeds according to the body weight of different aged pigs.
|Feeding Amount According to the Body Weight of Pigs|
|Body Weight of Pigs||Daily Required Food (kg) Per Pig|
Pigs breeding process is very easy and simple. Generally, both male and female pigs become suitable for breeding within their 8 months of age. Within this time they reach about 100 to 120 kg. The heat period of female pig lengths for 2 to 3 days. First day during the heat period of gilts is the best time to breed. And second day is best for sow. A sow become suitable for breeding again after 2 to 10 days of weaning. The gestation period of pigs is not more than 115 days. A sow can give birth of piglets twice a year and about 8 to 12 piglets each time.
Care & Management
Always take good care of your animals. Try to keep them free from all types of health hazard and diseases. All male piglets are not necessary for breeding purpose. You can keep some and rest can be castrated when they are 3 to 4 weeks old. Feed nutritious feed and take extra care of the sow during lactation period. Also be very careful about the breeding boar, piglets and the pregnant sows. Vaccinate the piglets to prevent swine fever at their 2 to 4 weeks of age. Keep your pigs in calm and quiet place and never allow visitors inside the farm.
Marketing is the easiest process of commercial pig farming in India. Pig meat has a good domestic demand. You can easily sell your products in your local market or nearest big markets. You can also target the global market.
Commercial pig farming in India is really a very profitable business. And the social scenario of pig farming business has changed greatly. Now everyone is conscious about the economic importance of pig farming business in India. So, if you are interested in setting up commercial pig farming in India then try to learn more about modern and scientific methods of pig farming. We cordially wish your success. Cheers!