Gumboro disease is caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), characterized by immunosuppression and mortality generally at 3 to 6 weeks of age.
The Gumboro disease was first discovered in Gumboro, Delaware in the year of 1962. It is economically very important to the poultry industry worldwide due to increased susceptibility to other diseases and negative interference with effective vaccination.
Currently, very virulent strains of IBDV, causing severe mortality in chicken, have emerged in Europe, Latin America, South-East Asia, Africa and the Middle East.
Infection is via the oro-fecal route, with affected bird excreting high levels of the virus for approximately 2 weeks after infection. The disease is easily spread from infected chickens to healthy chickens through food, water, and physical contact.
Gumboro disease damage the working power of all poultry vaccine. As a result the chicken affects by other disease easily. This disease spread from one chicken to another through the used poultry equipment, affected birds food, water, closet etc.
This disease is very harmful for poultry. So, be more careful and take proper care and provide proper treatment.
What is Gumboro Disease
Gumboro disease, also known as infectious bursal disease (IBD), is a viral infection that affects young chickens and can lead to high mortality rates in infected flocks.
The disease is caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), which primarily targets the bursa of Fabricius, an organ located in the chicken’s immune system that plays a key role in the development of B-cells.
The symptoms of Gumboro disease can include depression, loss of appetite, ruffled feathers, and diarrhea. In severe cases, infected chickens may die suddenly without showing any clinical signs of illness.
The virus can be spread through direct contact between infected and susceptible birds, as well as through contaminated feed, water, and equipment.
Preventing Gumboro disease typically involves vaccination of chicks at an early age, as well as practicing good biosecurity measures to minimize the risk of virus transmission.
It is important for poultry producers to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive disease prevention and control program.
Causes of Gumboro Disease
Gumboro disease, also known as infectious bursal disease (IBD) is caused by a birnavirus, which primarily affects the bursa of Fabricius, an important organ in the immune system of poultry. Here we will explore the causes of Gumboro disease and the various factors that contribute to its spread.
- Viral Transmission: Gumboro disease is primarily caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), which is highly contagious and can easily spread from bird to bird through direct or indirect contact. Birds infected with the virus can shed it in their feces, saliva, and respiratory secretions, which can contaminate feed, water, and other surfaces. The virus can survive in the environment for several weeks, making it difficult to control its spread.
- Bird Age: Young birds, especially those between 3 and 6 weeks of age, are most susceptible to Gumboro disease. This is because the bursa of Fabricius, which is the primary target of the virus, is most active and vulnerable during this period. Older birds may also be affected, but they typically have some immunity due to prior exposure to the virus.
- Genetics: Certain breeds of chickens may be more susceptible to Gumboro disease than others due to genetic factors. Some breeds may have weaker immune systems or less efficient bursa of Fabricius, which can make them more vulnerable to the virus.
- Stress: Stress is a significant factor that can weaken the immune system of birds, making them more susceptible to Gumboro disease. Stress can be caused by various factors, including overcrowding, poor ventilation, poor nutrition, and other environmental factors. Stress can also be caused by handling and transportation, which can cause physical and psychological stress in birds.
- Contaminated Equipment: Gumboro disease can spread through contaminated equipment, including feeders, waterers, and other equipment used in poultry farms. The virus can survive in the environment for several weeks and can easily spread from bird to bird through contaminated equipment.
- Improper Vaccination: Vaccination is an essential tool in the prevention and control of Gumboro disease. However, improper vaccination can also contribute to the spread of the disease. Improper vaccination can include incorrect dosage, poor vaccine quality, and failure to follow proper vaccination protocols. Vaccination should be done by trained professionals who are familiar with proper vaccination protocols.
- Biosecurity Measures: Poor biosecurity measures can also contribute to the spread of Gumboro disease. Biosecurity measures include practices that prevent the entry and spread of infectious agents in poultry farms, such as limiting access to the farm, disinfecting equipment, and isolating sick birds. Failure to follow proper biosecurity measures can result in the introduction and spread of Gumboro disease in poultry farms.
- Coinfections: Coinfections with other infectious agents can also contribute to the severity and spread of Gumboro disease. Birds infected with other viruses or bacteria may have weakened immune systems, making them more vulnerable to Gumboro disease. Coinfections can also increase the shedding of the virus, contributing to the spread of the disease.
- Climate: The climate can also play a role in the spread of Gumboro disease. The virus is more stable in cold and humid environments, making it more likely to spread during the winter months. The climate can also affect the health of birds, with extreme temperatures and weather conditions causing stress and weakening the immune system.
- Poor Nutrition: Poor nutrition can also contribute to the spread of Gumboro disease. Birds that are malnourished or have a deficient diet may have weakened immune systems, making them more susceptible to the virus. Additionally, poor nutrition can also affect the development and function of the bursa of Fabricius, which can make birds more vulnerable to Gumboro disease.
- Management Practices: The management practices used in poultry farms can also contribute to the spread of Gumboro disease. Overcrowding, poor ventilation, and poor hygiene practices can create an environment that is conducive to the spread of the virus. Additionally, poor management practices can also increase stress levels in birds, making them more vulnerable to the disease.
- Migration of Wild Birds: Wild birds, especially waterfowl, can also be carriers of the IBDV and can introduce the virus to poultry farms. Wild birds can shed the virus in their feces and can contaminate water sources that are used by poultry farms. Poultry farms located in areas where wild birds migrate should take extra precautions to prevent the introduction of the virus.
- Lack of Quarantine Measures: Lack of quarantine measures can also contribute to the spread of Gumboro disease. New birds introduced to a flock should be quarantined for at least two weeks before being introduced to the rest of the flock. Failure to quarantine new birds can result in the introduction of the virus into the flock.
Gumboro Disease Symptoms
- Mortality rate of baby chicken is very high.
- Closet of the affected chicken is liquid like water and very unsavory.
- The feather near anus get wet.
- Feathers of the affected chicken get disarranged.
- Affected chicken stop eating.
- They become very thirsty.
- Affected chicken reduces disease preventing power.
- Growing rate of affected broiler chicken get reduced.
- The chicken looses weight.
- Anus of the affected bird become very noisy.
- 30-40 % affected chicken die within 3 day.
- Chicken become very tired, lay down and die due to dehydration.
- Temperature of affected bird become very high and reduce very fast than natural temperature.
- Blood and white mucus flows with closet.
- Baby chicken stay very closer to each other and stay in the corner of poultry house.
Gumboro Disease Defense Method
By following the poultry health guidelines and timely vaccination, the farmer can prevent the gumboro disease. The vaccine of gumboro disease are of two types. One for baby chicken and another for adult chicken.
This poultry vaccines used for baby chicken. Apply the gumboro live vaccine to the chicken within 14-18 days of age. Apply one whit vaccine per eye. This vaccine also can be served the chicken by mixing with water.
Gumboro inactivated vaccine used for adult chicken. Use this vaccine 0.3 milliliter per chicken at the age of 18-20 weeks. Apply this vaccine under the skin of chicken using injection.
- Provide the affected chicken antibiotic, vitamin and minerals.
- Keep the chicken in healthy and clean place.
- Wash the house and equipment of poultry with formalin and germicide.
- If this disease affect the chicken, call veterinarian as soon as possible.
Treatment & Control
Peri-focal vaccination may not be effective for the combat of an outbreak, due to the rapidity of wild-IBDV spreading.
Passive immunity may protect against challenge with homologous IBDV, as does previous infection with homologous avirulent strains. Breeder flocks may be immunised against IBD so that they would transfer protective antibodies to the progenies, such as broiler and pullet chicks.
Low-attenuated vaccine strains may cause damage to the bursa of Fabricius and immunosuppression in susceptible chicks. Biosecurity with adequate restriction to farm visitation and distancing from other flocks. Post outbreak hygiene measures may not be effective as the virus can survive for long periods in both housing and water.
Tips for Preventing Gumboro Disease
Here are some tips for preventing Gumboro disease.
- Proper Vaccination: Proper vaccination is crucial in preventing Gumboro disease. Vaccines for Gumboro disease are available and should be administered according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Vaccines can be administered in the drinking water or through injection. It is essential to follow the recommended vaccination schedule, as well as the correct dosage and administration method, to ensure optimal protection.
- Biosecurity Measures: Biosecurity measures are critical in preventing the spread of Gumboro disease. Poultry farms should implement strict biosecurity measures to prevent the introduction of the virus into the flock. These measures include limiting access to the farm, disinfecting equipment, and maintaining good hygiene practices. Additionally, visitors should be restricted from entering the poultry house to minimize the risk of introducing the virus.
- Sanitation: Proper sanitation practices are necessary to prevent the spread of Gumboro disease. Poultry houses should be cleaned and disinfected regularly, especially after an outbreak of the disease. Disinfectants should be effective against the IBDV virus and used according to the manufacturer’s instructions. All equipment, including feeders and waterers, should be cleaned and disinfected regularly.
- Quarantine Measures: New birds introduced to a flock should be quarantined for at least two weeks before being introduced to the rest of the flock. This will allow the birds to be monitored for signs of disease and prevent the introduction of the virus into the flock. During quarantine, the new birds should be housed separately and should not have contact with other birds.
- Monitoring: Regular monitoring of the flock is essential in detecting the presence of Gumboro disease. Birds should be monitored for signs of illness, including diarrhea, decreased feed consumption, and decreased activity.
- Avoid Overcrowding: Overcrowding can increase stress levels in birds, making them more vulnerable to disease. Poultry houses should be adequately sized to provide adequate space for the birds. Overcrowding should be avoided, especially during the early stages of development when the birds are more vulnerable.
- Proper Nutrition: Proper nutrition is essential in maintaining the health of the birds and preventing the spread of disease. A balanced diet that meets the nutritional requirements of the birds should be provided.
- Climate Control: Proper climate control is necessary to prevent the spread of Gumboro disease. The temperature and humidity levels in the poultry house should be regulated to provide a comfortable environment for the birds. Extreme temperatures can increase stress levels in the birds, making them more vulnerable to disease.
- Avoid Co-infections: Co-infections can increase the severity of Gumboro disease and should be avoided. Birds should be protected from other diseases, and sick birds should be isolated to prevent the spread of disease.
- Training and Education: Proper training and education of poultry farm workers is essential in preventing the spread of Gumboro disease. Workers should be trained in proper biosecurity measures, sanitation practices, and monitoring techniques.
- Genetic Selection: Genetic selection can play a significant role in preventing Gumboro disease. Some poultry breeds are more resistant to the disease than others. Poultry farms should select breeds that are known to be more resistant to Gumboro disease to minimize the risk of an outbreak.
- Avoid Contamination: Poultry farms should avoid contamination by implementing measures to prevent the spread of the virus. This includes disinfecting equipment and vehicles before entering the poultry farm.
- Early Detection: Early detection of Gumboro disease is critical in preventing the spread of the virus. Poultry farms should have a surveillance system in place to detect any signs of disease. This can include regular testing and monitoring of the flock for signs of illness.
- Prompt Response: In the event of an outbreak of Gumboro disease, a prompt response is necessary to prevent the spread of the virus. Sick birds should be isolated, and the infected area should be disinfected immediately.
- Collaborate with Veterinarians: Collaboration with veterinarians can be beneficial in preventing the spread of Gumboro disease. Veterinarians can provide guidance on vaccination protocols, biosecurity measures, and monitoring techniques.