Pig farming in Nigeria is becoming very popular day by day. It is a wonderful business idea and very profitable. You can get return of your total investment within very short time.
Pig farming is very easy and pig meat has a huge global popularity. This is the main reason of increasing this business in Nigeria.
The economy of Nigeria is mostly dependent on agriculture. And various types of agribusiness related to agriculture sector are contributing much to the national income and total economy of Nigeria.
Along with traditional business ideas, pig farming in Nigeria can play an important role in eradicating unemployment, poverty, nutrition lacking and many more. By raising pigs commercially, you can both fulfill your family nutrition demands and earn some extra cash.
What Are The Importance/Advantages Of Pig Farming In Nigeria?
There are many advantages of pig farming in Nigeria. Here I am describing the main advantages of commercial pig farming business in Nigeria.
- The reproduction period and system of pig is faster than any other livestock like cattle or goats.
- Pig can convert more energy/nutrient into protein and as a result they grow faster than cattle, goats or other livestock animals.
- Pigs can survive and produce more by consuming little amount of low quality foods. You can feed them roughage, kitchen garbage, agricultural waste etc. for the purpose of reducing feeding cost.
- Need less amount of investment. Although, investment depends on the size of your farm.
- Many Nigerians are experiencing malnutrition problem due to absence of sufficient protein in their regular food. By raising pigs, we can meet up this demand.
- A large amount of daily necessary protein derives from plant and a little amount from animals. Animal protein is very essential for human body because of it’s high biological value and contains the building stones for good health and proper growth. By raising pigs, we can easily meet up this demand.
- A sow generally give birth of piglets twice a year. Each time they give birth of 10 piglets (sometimes more). And the gestation period is not more than 115 days. So, you can go for large scale commercial production within very short time if you start with few pigs.
- Weather condition and geographical location of Nigeria is very suitable for pig farming.
- Very profitable business idea with great ROI (Return of Investment) ratio.
How to Start Pig Farming in Nigeria?
Starting pig farming in Nigeria is relatively easy and simple. And it can be a great source of employment and income. You can start raising pigs either in small scale or commercially. Follow the steps mentioned below for commercial pig farming in Nigeria.
Step 1: Learn Practically
First of all, try to learn more about this business practically from any of your nearest farmers or breeders. Having practical knowledge is very important in this business. So, try to learn more about this business practically by visiting as many farms as you can within your area.
Step 2: Complete a Training
Completing a training is also very important for starting and operating this business successfully. Practical training will help you to learn more about this business and it is very important for the beginners. You can complete the training from any of your nearest government or non government organizations. Some agricultural collages and universities also provide pig farming training occasionally.
Step 3: Make A Business Plan
Making a very good and effective pig farming business plan is also very important. A good and effective business plan helps to start and run your business perfectly. So, make a good business plan before starting and try to include everything in your business plan from starting to marketing. You can ask for help from an expert if you are new in this business.
Step 4: Select a Good Location
Before starting pig farming business in Nigeria, you must have to acquire a suitable land. The size or area of the land will depend on the scale of your pig farming business.
The more pigs you want to raise, the more land will required. Divide the land into several plots. This will help you to raise different aged pigs separately.
It will be better, if you can select a land far from the residential areas. Calm and quiet place will be very effective. While selecting land for pig farming business in Nigeria, keep in mind some necessary facilities.
- Sufficient supply of fresh and clean water in the farm area. It would be better if there any pond, lake or other water source available.
- The selected area will be very near to the market.
- Good transportation systems.
- Far from the residential area.
- Foods are available near the farm land.
- Availability of all types of veterinary service.
Step 5: Determine Your Farming Method
Pigs can be raised in many different methods. You can either start a small scale production or start commercially. You can raise them either in intensive system or in free-range system. So, determine the methods before starting.
Step 6: Purchase Equipment
Like many other livestock business, commercial pig farming business also require some tools or equipment. Here is a list of some of the common equipment and tools needed for pig farming:
- Pig pens or housing units
- Fencing materials
- Sorting boards
- Vaccination equipment
- Hoof trimmers
- Heat lamps or heaters
- Straw, hay, or wood shavings
- Shovels, rakes, and brooms
- Manure spreaders or composting equipment
- Protective clothing and gear
- Parasite control products
- First aid kit
- Boar pens or stalls
- Estrus detection tools
- Pregnancy testing equipment
- Ventilation fans
- Cooling systems
- Record-Keeping tools
- Farm management software or notebooks
- Transportation equipment
Step 7: Select and Purchase Breeds
After selecting a suitable farm land, it is very important to select proper pig breeds/piglets. Because, profitability from pig farming in Nigeria mostly depends on selecting proper piglets.
You can choose both local and hybrid piglets. For commercial purpose crossbreed of exotic and local breeds are very suitable.
This types of crossbreed pigs consume more feed, grow faster and become healthier than other available breeds.
There are various types of crossbreeds available. So, it might difficult for you to select the right breed for your pig farming business. So, while purchasing pigs look out the following signs.
- The selected pig has a pair of bright eyes.
- Has a glossy coat.
- It must have to be alert and responsive to it’s surrounding environment.
- Never purchase and aggressive pig. The selected pig must have to have good temperament.
- It has good appeal to food.
- Easy and normal movement.
- Free from lameness or any other unnatural signs.
- Try to purchase pregnant pigs. It not available then good quality piglets are OK. During purchasing piglets, ask the producer about their parents and their health information, production history and other records. Ask the producer if the pig has been vaccinated and dewormed or not. If not, ask him to do it urgently.
Step 8: Ensure Good Housing System
Housing is very important for commercial pig farming in Nigeria. A good house can keep them healthy, productive and free from adverse climate and all types of predators.
Housing also help the pigs to keep them warm during winter season and cold temperatures. It also help them to keep moderate temperature during excessive heat in summer season.
Pigs are very sensitive to heat and they may become sick and die due to excessive heat or cold temperature.
Controlled and moderate temperature can help to maximize the growth and production from pig farming business. Pigs can be raised both in indoors and in individual stalls, pens or barns.
In case of raising the pigs in outdoor, they need special type of shelter during hot and cold weather. Keep sufficient space for feeding and bedding inside the house.
Pigs generally like dry bed. So, always try to keep the house and bed dry. Also make a suitable system for protecting from extreme humidity, heat and cold.
For indoor pig farming system, make proper and sufficient ventilation systems in the house. Ensure sufficient flow of fresh air and light inside the house.
Make a proper drainage inside the house to keep the house dry. Good sanitation system inside the house is very important for pig farming. Make housing with good sanitation facilities so that you can easily clean the house.
Step 9: Provide Nutritious Feeding
Feeding good quality, fresh and nutritious food can make your pigs healthier and ensure proper growth. Good food also help to prevent various types of diseases.
You can feed your pigs almost everything including roughage, kitchen garbage, agricultural waste, stalk from beverage companies etc. For commercial production you have to feed your pigs at least twice a day.
Generally, pigs eat both grains and meat. You can also feed your pigs with cooked table scraps, rice and vegetables. Among all the food elements, corn is the most common food of pigs.
Soybeans or cooked meat can be a great source of protein for the pigs. Pigs will grow faster, if you can necessary nutrition elements, vitamins and other supplements.
Piglets require more protein than the mature pigs. You can buy ready-made pig food from the market or make your own mixture prepared at home.
Along with providing nutritious and fresh food, always serve them sufficient amount of clean and fresh water. Pigs require a huge amount of water daily. So, make a great source of clean and fresh water available in the farm area.
Step 10: Proper Breeding Management is Important
Breeding process of pigs are easy and simple. Generally, the gestation period of pigs is not more than 115 days. Sow give birth of piglets twice a year. And produce more than 10 kids each time.
After delivery, the kids will be feed on the breast milk for their first nine weeks of age. After completing the grower stage of piglets, the sow become suitable for mating again.
Step 11: Ensure Timely Vaccination
Vaccinating the pigs timely is very important for keeping them healthy, active and productive. So, try to vaccinate them timely. You can ask for help from an expert if you are new in caring pigs.
Step 12: Ensure Good Caring and Health Management
Taking good care of the pigs is very important for their good health. So, always try to take good care of your animals. Although, caring for pigs is is relatively easy and simple. You just have to make sure that the pigs have a safe and comfortable place to live.
Pigs also need to be fed a balanced diet with the right nutrients to stay healthy and grow well. It is very important to give them clean water to drink every day.
Keep an eye on the pig’s health and give them any medicine they need if they get sick. Pigs need a clean environment to stay healthy and happy. So, try to clean their living area regularly and manage their waste properly.
Step 13: Marketing
There is a good market of pigs meat. You can sell your products in your local market or international market. China is the world largest pig meat consumers. Pig meat is tasty, nutritious and has a great global popularity.
Pig farming in Nigeria has a great business opportunities for unemployed educated people, women and for the people who want to raise pigs commercially. If you are beginner in this business, try to learn more about pig farming, read a lots of books, visit pig farms as much as possible and finally do it.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
People ask many questions about pig farming in Nigeria. Here we are trying to list the most common questions about pig farming in Nigeria, and trying to answer them. Hope you will find your answer. Don’t hesitate to ask us if you have more questions.
Is pig farming profitable in Nigeria?
Yes, pig farming is a very profitable business in Nigeria. You will be able to make good money from this business if you can manage everything perfectly. Many people are already doing this business for making money.
How to start pig farming in Nigeria?
Starting a pig farming business is very easy in Nigeria. For starting a commercial pig farming business, you have to select a suitable land fist. Then purchase good quality breed, make a good house for your animals, and feed them with good quality and nutritious food.
How much does it cost to start a pig farm in Nigeria?
Depends on numerous factors. But you have to spend between ₦80,000 and ₦100,000 for starting a commercial pig farming business in Nigeria.
Is pig farming a profitable business in Nigeria?
Yes, sure! Pig farming is definitely a profitable business in Nigeria.
How much is a full grown pig in Nigeria?
Depends on numerous factors and can vary from place to place. But you can expect the price between ₦30,000 and ₦70,000.
How long does it take for a pig to mature?
Depends on the breed. But most of the pigs become ready for marketing within their 8 months of age.
How can feed pigs cheap in Nigeria?
Kitchen scraps, palm kernel shells and hotel food wastes are the easiest ways to feed the pigs cheaply in Nigeria.
Where can I sell pigs in Nigeria?
You can target your local market or any nearest livestock market in your area. You can also target the hotels and restaurants in your area.
Which breed of pig is most profitable in Nigeria?
Most profitable pig breeds for commercial production in Nigeria include Landrace, Yorkshire, Hampshire, Duroc breeds and their crosses.
What is the best feed for pigs in Nigeria?
Best feed for pigs in Nigeria include maize, cassava, soybeans, broken rice, rice bran, vegetables etc.
How much does it cost to feed a pig for 6 months in Nigeria?
The price of 50 kilograms of finisher pig feed ranged from ₦6,800 to ₦7,000 in Nigeria.
What are the problems of pig farming in Nigeria?
There are some problems of pig farming in Nigeria. The most common problems are high feeding costs and difficulties in securing institutional loans.
How long does it take a pig to mature in Nigeria?
Depends on the breed. But most of the pigs become ready for marketing within their 6-8 months of age.
How much is a piglet cost in Nigeria?
Average price of a piglet in Nigeria is between ₦6,000 and ₦7,000.