Carp fish farming is very profitable and as being a land of river, we have a tradition of fish farming. About 1.3 millions of pond spread throughout the country. Most of them are being farmed in traditional methods. If we try a little we can make more. In the past fish were collected only from natural source but no system used for farming. As the population is growing at a high rate so, now it is very difficult to find fish from natural lake or river. So scientific fish farming or use of technology in fish farming is a must to fulfill our protein demand according to population growth. One of this technology is ‘mixed carp fish farming.
The species of fish which is not of cannibalistic habits, does not fight about food, stay in different water levels and eat food of different level can be farming in same pond. Farming this types of species in a pond together is called mixed farming.
Carp fish means domestic and foreign fish like rui fish or other species like this. Katla, mrigel, kalibaus are south Asian species. And the foreign species are silver carp, grass carp, big head carp, black carp, common carp etc. are famous.
We can make some group of fish according to their habit of taking food and living.
Upper Level Fish
Katla, silver carp and the big head carp are of upper level fish. They eat food from top level. Many green little plant, insects are eaten by them from upper level.
Mid Level Fish
Fish like rui eat food like small insects from this level.
Low Level Fish
Mrigel, kalibaus, mirror carp are of low level fish. They eat insects, snail, oyster, small plant from this level.
Fish of All Level
Grass carp and hybrid pumpti stay and eat food from all level. Aquatic plant, soft grass, moss etc are their main food. So, if there grow any weed under water or grass it should control.
Advantages of Carp Fish Farming
There are many advantages of carp fish farming. Most of them are described below.
- Eat feed from variety of levels.
- Fish does not fight with each other for feed.
- Each fish stay in their own level.
- They are not of cannibalistic habit.
- Good disease resistance.
- Increase their weight quickly and grow fast.
- Minnow can find easily.
- Eat low cost subsidiary feed.
- Tasty to eat and high demand in market.
- Have economic value.
- Minnow can produced by artificial fish breeding.
Carp Fish Farming Methods
Carp fish farming methods depends on the area or environment, availability of equipment, financial situation, knowledge and skills of farmer. Farming method founded depending on this this basis.
Farming fish based on natural feed is called traditional fish farming method. In this system stock of minnow can be high or low. Cannibalistic habit fish are not removed. No feed outside from pond served. Production from this system is very low.
Semi Intensive Method
Preparing the pond in scientific rules, using fertilizer and supplementary feed regularly, farming more fish in small place is known as semi intensive method. In this system fertilizer used for growing of natural fish feed. Food of all level of pond should used properly. So we have to elect the right species. If the food is not sufficient from natural source, they should serve feed from outside. This method is widely used for carp fish farming.
In this system fish are farming for more production from a little place. High quality feed and fertilizer are used in this method. Fish are farming in a high density. Use of technology is high in this system.
The first and most important thing for carp fish farming is good pond management. If there any problem in selecting pond, then the fish will not grow fast, fish can be stolen and there may have some problems in the transportation of minnow. For profitable farming you have to be conscious about the point listed below.
- The ownership of the pond should be single.
- If you hire pond, it should for at least five years.
- The pond must have to free from flood.
- Depth of water of pond should 2-3 meter.
- No large tree near the pond.
- Pond should open and plenty of light and wind.
- Minimum 7-8 hours of sunlight.
- Slope of the pond should 1.5:2.
- Minnow have to be available near the pond.
- If it is situated near the farmer house, then it will be very good for pond management and care. And fish will not theft.
- It would better if easy transportation and market is available near the pond.
- Before start farming, remove all types of cannibalistic habitat fish.
- Cannibalistic fish can easily removed by making the pond dry and applying medicine.
- Many types of little plant on pond takes the provided fertilizer. So this types of plant should removed.
- Repair the bank and bottom of pond every year.
The level of PH can maintain by applying lime in the water. Lime can applied by mixing with water. It reduces diseases, germs and toxic gas.
Two types of fertilizer are used in pond like, organic and inorganic or chemical fertilizer. Dung, poultry and ducks faeces and plant spinach are organic fertilizer. Fertilizer made from chemical element are called inorganic fertilizer. Nitrogen, TSP, MP etc. are inorganic fertilizer. Fertilizer should apply spreading all over the pond.
The main element of fish farming is water. Without fresh, clean and healthy water in the pond carp fish farming will not be profitable. So, there must have to have a proper source of water near the pond. You also have to keep in mind that cannibalistic habit fish should not enter in pond with water. Water should change after a few days, weeks or month.
Two or three species of fish farming together is called mixed farming. Such species of fish should farming which is will not competitive to each other. Species should select which will ensure the use of all level food. It is very profitable to use more than one species. Density of minnow will be according to the area of pond and farming method.
Supplementary feed for fish should served according to the availability of natural fish feed. On an average 3-5 percent of feed can served in accordance with the weight of fish. Feed consuming reduce in winter season. So 1-2 percent food should provide in this season. Supplementary feed have to keep in water for 12-15 hours. This feed should served twice a day in a certain place of pond. It ensures good production. Excessive food damage the environment of pond. So, farmer should have to be conscious all time.
Using fertilizer in the pond is very important for carp fish farming. Fertilizer helps to grow natural feed in the pond which is very important for carp fish farming. Before applying fertilizer you have to know about the condition of natural food. Because if you use excessive fertilizer in accordance with natural food, it will damage the condition of water. Farmer have to try all time to keep the quality of water if he want a better production. Proper condition of water and natural food should learned so that they can use fertilizer well and keep the water condition better.
Success in carp fish farming business depends on well condition of water and better management. You should conscious about rotation. So, the substance which rotted the water should removed from pond. Tree leaf can damage water condition, so it would better if there are no tree near the pond. Be sure that no source of poisonous water near the pond. After all, well management and care should maintain to be success.