Apple Farming

Commercial apple farming is a very old business. Apple is a very common fruit and found throughout the world. It is very nutritious and very popular fruit.

Apples are available in in all parts around the globe. Apple trees are cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus Malus.

Apple tree originated in Central Asia, where it’s wild ancestor (Malus sieversii) is still found today. And apples actually have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe and were brought to North America by European colonists.

Apple is a very important fruit in many countries. And it has religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse, Greek and European Christian tradition.[1]

Apple trees are generally large in size if grown from seed. But today, commercial apple producers used to propagate apple cultivars by grafting onto rootstocks (which control the size of the resulting tree).

Today, there are numerous varieties/cultivars of apples available throughout the world. Each of these varieties has especial characteristics. Different varieties are bred for various tastes and uses including cooking, cider production or eating raw.

Apple is actually a deciduous tree, generally standing between 6 and 15 feet tall in commercial cultivation and up to 30 feet in the wild. When cultivated, the size, shape and branch density are determined by rootstock selection and trimming method.

Leaves of the apple trees are alternately arranged dark green-colored simple ovals with serrated margins and slightly downy undersides.

Today, apple is among the most popular fruits. Total worldwide production of apples in the year of 2018 was 86 million tones, with China accounting for nearly half of the total. Secondary apple producing countries are United States and Poland.

Nutrition and Uses of Apples

All parts of the fruit (including skin, but not the seeds) are suitable for human consumption. The core, from stem to bottom, containing the seeds, is usually not eaten and is discarded.

These fruits can be consumed in many different ways: juice, raw in salads, baked in pies, cooked into sauces and spreads like apple butter, and other baked dishes. They are sometimes used as an ingredient in savory foods, such as sausage and stuffing.

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Apple is a very nutritious fruit. A raw apple is about 14% carbohydrates, 86% water and negligible content of fat and protein. According to healthline, one medium apple (around 182 grams) offers the following nutrients:

  • Carbs: 25 grams
  • Calories: 95
  • Fiber: 4 grams
  • Potassium: 6% of the RDI (Reference Daily Intake)
  • Vitamin C: 14% of the RDI
  • Vitamin K: 5% of the RDI

In a word, apples are a good source of fiber and vitamins. They also contain polyphenols, which may have numerous health benefits.

Health Benefits of Apples

Consuming apples daily has many health benefits. You are probably familiar with the common English-language proverb “An apple a day keeps the doctor away”. Here we are trying to describe about the top advantages of consuming apples.

  • Apples are a very good source of fiber and vitamins. They also contain polyphenols, which may have numerous health benefits.
  • Apples are good source of fiber, so they are filling. You will be hungry less. And thus apples may aid weight loss.
  • Consuming apples regularly promote hearth health in several ways. Apples are high in soluble fiber, which helps lower cholesterol.
  • Eating apples is linked to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. This is possibly due to their polyphenol antioxidant content.
  • Apples contain pectin, a type of fiber that acts as a prebiotic. This means it feeds the good bacteria in your gut.
  • Apples have several naturally occurring compounds that may help fight cancer. Observational studies have linked them to a lower risk of cancer and death from cancer.
  • Apples contain antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds that may help to regulate immune responses and protect against asthma.
  • Consuming apples is also beneficial for promoting bone health, because it contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds.
  • Apples contain compounds that may help protect your stomach lining from injury due to NSAID painkillers.
  • According to animal studies, apple juice may help prevent the decline of neurotransmitters that are involved in memory.
  • In a word, apple is very nutritious and safe for human health. You can consume apples daily.

Advantages of Apple Farming Business

Commercial apple farming is a very old and popular business. It is a very common business in many countries.

There are numerous benefits/advantages of commercial apple farming business. Here we are trying to describe about the top advantages of commercial apple farming business.

  • Commercial apple farming is a very old and popular business. Many people are already doing this business.
  • If you are a beginner, you can learn more about apple farming from existing farmers.
  • Commercial apple production is very profitable, and you will be able to make good profits from this business.
  • You don’t have to worry about the future of this business. Because it is an old and established business.
  • Apple trees are very hardy and grow easily, and it’s very easy to take care of them. You can easily take care of them, even if you are a beginner.
  • Marketing apples is very easy. Because this fruit already has an established market demand and price. So, you don’t have to worry about marketing your products.
  • Commercial apple farming is a profitable business. So, it can be a great employment source for the people. Especially for the unemployed educated people.
  • Capital requirement in commercial apple farming business is relatively less. But you will get profits for many years.
  • Apples are very nutritious and have numerous health benefits. You can enjoy fresh apples if you start your own apple production business.

How to Start Apple Farming Business

Apple trees are very strong and hardy and they generally require less caring, and caring the plants is very easy and simple. You can learn practically from an experienced farmer in your area before starting this business commercially.

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You can take good care of the plants even if you are a beginner. Here we are trying to describe more information about starting and operating commercial apple farming business from planting, caring to harvesting and marketing.

Site Selection

You have to select a very good location for starting your apple farming business. Apple plants grow well in loamy soil which is rich in organic matter.

Good drainage system is a must, because apple plants can’t tolerate water logging. pH range of the soil should be between 5.5% and 6.5%.

Although, you can use your existing land if the land meet all the demands listed above.

Prepare Soil

Preparing the soil perfectly before planting is very important for growing apple plants. Do ploughing, cross ploughing of land and then level the land.

And then prepare the land in such way that water stagnation should not occurred in field. Because, apple plants can’t tolerate water logging.

You should add as much organic content as you can while preparing the soil. Adding organic content will help the plants to grow well and produce more.

Climate Requirements For Apple Farming

Apple plants can be grown in right climatic conditions. These plants can be grown at altitudes 1500 to 2700 meter above sea level.[2]

Temperature during the apple growing season should be around 21°C and 24°C. These trees require between 100 cm to 125 cm of annual rainfall (evenly spread throughout the year).

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Too much of rainfall and fog near the fruit maturity period will result in poor fruit quality with improper color development of fruit and fungal spots on the fruit surface. Apple cultivation is not suitable where the high velocity of winds are expected.

Apple Varieties

Currently, there are numerous varieties/cultivars available to choose from. You can choose any variety which grows well in your area. Consult with some existing farmers for better recommendation.

Common and popular cultivars are Alice, Ambrosia, Ananasrenette, Arkansas Black, Aroma, Belle de Boskoop, Bramley, Cox’s Orange Pippin, Cox Pomona, Cripps Pink, Discovery, Egremont Russet, Fuji, Gala, Bloster, Golden Delicous, Goldrenette, Granny Smith, Honeycrisp, James Grieve, Jonagold, Lobo, Mclntosh, Pacific Rose, Red Delicious, Shampion, Stark Delicious, SugarBee, Summerred, Tellissaare, Yellow Transparent etc.


Commercial propagation of apple plants is done by budding and tongue grafting methods. Purchase the planting material required for apple farming from the registered nurseries.

Purchase Plants

Apple plants are easily available in the areas where the plants grow. You can easily purchase from any of your nearest nurseries.

Today, many nurseries have online presence. So, you can order the plants online.


Apple plants can be planted at anytime. But it is recommended to plant the plants during January and February months.

Average number of plants in an area of one hectare may range from 200 to 1250. Although, stocking density depends on numerous factors.

Stocking density can vary depending on the planting system. 4 different types of planting density are implemented. Such as low, moderate, high and ultra high density.

Generally less than 300 plants per hectare in the less density type, 300-500 plants in moderate density, 500-1300 plants in high density, and more than 1300 plants per hectare in high density type.


Apple plants are very strong and hardy. They generally grow well in less caring and other management. Although, taking additional caring will help the plants to grow well and produce more. Here we are trying to describe more about the caring process in commercial apple farming business.


Providing the plants with adequate fertilizers is very important for good growth of the plants. Provide adequate organic fertilizers (such as farm yard manure) along with other chemical fertilizers.

The ratio of K, P, and N which is applied in an orchard of optimal fertility is 70:35:70 grams per year age of the tree. Use appropriate application of fertilizer for deficiency of boron, zinc, manganese and calcium.


Irrigation requirement in commercial apple farming is around 115 cm per annum which should be scheduled in 14 to 20 watering/irrigation.

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Watering should be provided at an interval of 6 to 10 days during the summer season, and at an interval of 3-4 weeks during the winter season. And at least 8 irrigation are required during the critical period (April to August), after fruit set.


Weeds consume nutrients from the soil, and the plants suffer. So, timely and regular weeding is very important.


Inter-cropping is a great way to earn some extras. It also helps to minimize weed problem. Green manuring crops like bean and sunflower can be cultivated in the early years of apple planting in order to increase soil texture and nutrients of the soil.


Mulching helps to retain moisture into the soil. It will also help to reduce the growth of weeds. You can use organic materials as mulch.

Training & Pruning

For getting good growth of the plants and good production, timely training and pruning is very important. The apple plants are trained as per growth habit and vigor of the rootstocks.

The standard apple plants are trained on a modified central leader system to receive proper light. This improves fruit color and also minimizes the effect of heavy snowfall and hail.

Spindle bush system is best suitable for high-density apple planting under mid hill conditions.

Pests & Diseases

As we have mentioned above ‘apple trees are very strong and hardy’. And they are less susceptible to pests, diseases or other problems.

The main pests in apple farming are eriosoma lanigerum, quadraspidiotus perniciosus, thrips rhopalantennalis, pseudoulacaspis sp. etc.

And the main diseases found in apple farming are venturia, inaequilis, phytophthora cactorus, agrobacterium tumefaciens, sclerotium rolfsii, cankers, die-back diseases, etc. You can apply carbendazim, copper oxychloride, mancozeb and other fungicides for controlling the diseases.


Depending on the variety, the apple trees start bearing fruits from the 8th year. Apple productivity goes on increasing from the 8th year to 17th year, and afterward production remains constant up to 30 years.

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Lifespan of the apple trees can be extended up to even 40 years depending upon the climatic conditions. Generally the fruits are harvested before they are fully ripe.

Post-Harvesting Tasks

There are many tasks/activities to follow after harvesting apples. Post-harvesting tasks are pre-cooling, grading according to their size and weight, storage, packing and transporting. Do all these activities very carefully.


It’s not possible to tell the exact amount. Because exact number depends on numerous factors. On average, you can expect around 10-12 tonnes per hectare.


Marketing apples is very easy and simple. Apples have very good demand and value throughout the world. You will be able to easily sell your products in the local market.

These are the common steps and ways for starting and operating a successful apple farming business. Hope this guide has helped you! Good luck!

Frequently Asked Questions

People ask many questions about apple farming. Here we are listing the most common questions about this lucrative business, and trying to answer them. Hope you will find your answer. Don’t hesitate to ask us if you have more questions.

Is apple farming a profitable business?

Yes, commercial production of apple is a very profitable business. You can start this business for making profits.

How to start apple farming business?

Starting commercial apple production business is very easy and simple. You can start this business easily if you follow the steps mentioned below:

  • First of all you have to select a very good location for your farm.
  • Then prepare the soil by adding adequate amount of organic and chemical fertilizers.
  • Choose the right apple variety.
  • Purchase plants.
  • Plant the small plants in your prepared soil.
  • Try to control pests and diseases by using proper medicines.
  • Try to take good care of the plants.

How profitable is apple farming?

Apple farming is a very profitable business. Although, it’s very tough for us to tell the exact amount. Please consult with any existing farmers in your area for having some ideas.

How long will it take to grow an apple?

Generally, apple trees need at least 8 hours of sunlight per day during the growing season. The dwarf apple tree will start bearing fruit 2-3 years after planting. And other standard size trees can take up to 8 years to bear fruit.

Is apple easy to grow?

Yes, growing apple is relatively easy and simple. But the key to successful apple farming is to pick the right spot. All the apple varieties do best in full sun and moist environment in fertile and well-drained soil.

Where do apples grow best?

Apple trees grow best in areas with full access to sun (at lease 6 hours of sunlight daily). These plants grow well in fertile, well-drained soil. Light to medium texured soils are best for apple farming which. Good moisture holding capacity is a plus for these plants.

Which states in India do apple farming?

Major apple producing states in India are Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Arunachal Pradesh etc.

In which season apple is grown in India?

Generally, most of the apples are harvested from September-October. The fruits generally become mature within 130-150 days after the full bloom stage depending upon the variety grown.

What is the best climate for apple trees?

Climates with cold winter, moderate summer and medium to high humidity is considered best for apple trees.

How profitable is apple farming?

Commercial apple farming is very profitable. But it’s not possible to tell the exact amount. It’s possible to make around or up to $50,000 per acre per year.

How long do apple trees live?

Depends on numerous factors and it’s not possible to tell the exact number. Average lifespan of an apple tree can vary from 50 to 80 years.

How much water do apple trees need?

Generally, the apple trees will require around 20 inches of water during the growing season.

What soil does apple need?

Most of the apple trees grow best on organic content rich soil. These trees prefer well-drained, loam soils having a depth of 45 cm and a pH range of 5.5 to 6.5. It will be better if the soil become free from hard substances and water-logged conditions. Compact subsoil or soils with heavy clay is not good for apple trees.

Which apple variety is best?

The Red Delicious is considered as the best variety of apple.

How many kg of apples per tree?

Depends on numerous factors. A smallish bush apple tree may bear 50 kg, and a large standard tree can bear more than 250 kg fruits.

How many apple trees can you plant on 1 acre?

Exact number can vary from place to place. This density can vary from 450 trees per acre to 1,100 trees per acre.

Are apple trees high maintenance?

Yes, like many other fruit trees, the apple trees are also high-maintenance.

Do apples need fertilizer?

Yes, sure! The apple trees are heavy feeders and they require both organic and chemical fertilizers for better growth and production.

Do apple like sun or shade?

Yes, the apple trees like full sun to grow best.

Do apples like cow manure?

Yes, cow manure is good and safe for the apple trees.

Which color apple is best?

Green colored apple is considered best. Because, it is a better source of vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin K as compared to it’s counterpart. Green apples also contain more iron, potassium and protein.

Which apple is most tastiest?

Some of the best-tasting apple varieties are Honeycrisp, Pink Lady, Fuji, Ambrosia, and Cox’s Orange Pippin.

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