Orange Farming

Commercial orange farming is not a new business idea. It’s a common agribusiness throughout the world. And people are growing this fruit for making profits from the ancient time.

The orange actually is the fruit of various citrus species in the family Rutaceae (it primarily refers to Citrus × sinensis) which is also called sweet orange, to distinguish it from the related related Citrus × aurantium, referred to as bitter orange.

The orange is actually a hybrid between pomelo and mandarin. The chloroplast genome, and therefore the maternal line, is that of pomelo. The sweet orange has had its full genome sequenced.[1]

The orange originated in a region encompassing Southern China, Northeast India and Myanmar. As of 1987, orange trees were found to be the most cultivated fruit tree in the world.

Orange trees are generally grown widely in tropical and subtropical climates for their sweet fruits.

You can enjoy fresh orange or processed for it’s juice or fragrant peel. As of 2012, sweet oranges accounted for approximately 70% of citrus production.

In the year of 2019, around 79 million tonnes of oranges were grown worldwide, with Brazil producing about 22% of the total, followed by China and India.

Orange Nutrition & Health Benefits

Oranges are among the world’s most popular and common fruits. They are a healthy source of vitamin C, fiber, thiamine, folate and antioxidants.

And regular consumption of oranges has many health benefits. Here we are trying to describe more about nutrition value and health benefits of oranges.

Nutritional Value of Oranges

Orange flesh is around 1% protein, 12% carbohydrates, 87% water and contains negligible amount of fat. 100 grams orange flesh provides 47 calories, and is a rich source of vitamin C, providing 64% of the DV (daily value).

Oranges contain diverse phytochemicals, including carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein and beta-cryptoxanthin), flavonoids (e.g. naringenin) and numerous volatile organic compounds producing orange aroma, including aldehydes, esters, terpenes, alcohols, and ketones.

According to healthline, 100 grams orange flesh provides:

  • Calories: 47
  • Water: 87%
  • Protein: 0.9 grams
  • Carbs: 11.8 grams
  • Sugar: 9.4 grams
  • Fiber: 2.4 grams
  • Fat: 0.1 grams

Oranges are mainly made up of carbs and water, and are also a great source of fiber, protein, minerals and vitamins. They are also a good source of fiber, which may support digestive health.

Health Benefits of Consuming Oranges

Oranges are great for human health. There are numerous health benefits of regular consumption of oranges. Here we are trying to describe the top health benefits of consuming oranges.

  • Oranges are good source of carbs, fiber, protein, minerals and some vitamins.
  • They are primarily made up of carbs and water. They are also good source of fiber, which may support digestive health.
  • Many vitamins and minerals are found in oranges such as vitamin C, thiamine, folate and potassium.
  • Sweet oranges are a rich source of several plant compounds that are responsible for man of their health benefits.
  • Oranges are very good for heart health. Regular consumption of oranges or juice has a blood thinning effect and may reduce blood pressure significantly.
  • Sweet oranges are a good source of citric acid and citrates, which are believed to help prevent kidney stone formation.
  • Oranges can also help to protect against anemia by increasing your iron absorption.
  • You can enjoy oranges in many different ways. But eating whole oranges is healthier than drinking orange juice.

Oranges are among the world’s most popular and common fruits. And they are both tasty and nutritious. Consuming oranges daily is good for health.

Advantages/Benefits of Orange Farming Business

Commercial orange farming is a very common and popular business in many countries around the world. Cultivating oranges is very easy and even the beginners can also start commercial orange farming business.

Large scale or commercial orange production is a great system for earning some extras, because this business is highly profitable. Here we are trying to describe more about the top advantages of commercial orange farming business.

  • Commercial or large scale orange farming is a very old business, and people are doing this business from the ancient time.
  • So, you don’t have to worry much about starting and operating this business. You will be able to find many experienced farmer within your area to learn and practice practically.
  • Commercial orange farming is very profitable, and you will be able to make good profit from this business (even if you are a beginner).
  • Commercial orange production is a very old and established business. So, you don’t have to worry much about this business.
  • Both price and demand of oranges are high in domestic and international market.
  • Orange plants grow easily and it’s also very easy to take care of them. You can start growing orange trees even if you are a beginner.
  • Commercial orange farming is highly profitable. So, this venture can be a very good employment source for the rural people.
  • Especially, the educated but unemployed people can take this business as their carrier.
  • Commercial orange farming business doesn’t require high investment, but will take some time for making good profits. But once the trees are established, you will get fruits continuously for many years.
  • As we have mentioned above, oranges are very nutritious and consuming oranges regularly has numerous health benefits.
  • You can enjoy fresh oranges if you start your own orange farming business.

How to Start Orange Farming Business

Orange plants are generally very strong and hardy. And caring them is generally easy. You will be able to take good care of them, even if you are a beginner.

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Starting commercial orange farming business is very easy. Here we are trying to describe more information about starting and operating this business from planting, caring to harvesting and marketing.

Select Good Location

First of all, select a very good location for starting your orange farming business. Orange trees are generally grown in a wide range of soils ranging from sandy loam or alluvial soils.

Deep soils with a pH range of 5.5 to 7.5 are considered ideal for orange farming. Although, orange plants can also be grown in a pH range of 4.0 to 9.0.

Adequate sunlight and availability of water is a must for growing orange plants, and also for having good production.

Land Preparation

You have to prepare the land perfectly for having good production. Perfect land preparation is the key to successful orange farming business.

Land should be ploughed, cross ploughed and leveled before planting. Terrace planting is done on hills. High density planting is possible in hilly areas.

Add as much organic fertilizers as you can while preparing the land. Adding organic fertilizers is a must for good orange production.

Climate Requirement For Orange Farming

Orange trees grow successfully in all frost-free tropical and sub-tropical regions. Annual rainfall of 100-120 cm, and temperature ranging from 10°C to 35°C is suitable for orange farming.

Choose the Right Variety/Cultivars

There are many varieties or cultivars of oranges available throughout the world. Main varieties are Common oranges, Navel oranges, Blood oranges, Acidless oranges and Hybrids.

Each of these varieties have numerous sub or similar varieties. Here we are listing the name of some popular common orange varieties.

  • Valencia
  • Hamlin
  • Bahia
  • Bali
  • Belladonna
  • Berna
  • Biondo Comune (“ordinary blond”)
  • Biondo Riccio
  • Byeonggyul
  • Cadanera
  • Calabrese or Calabrese Ovale
  • Carvalhal
  • Castellana
  • Charmute
  • Cherry Orange
  • Clanor
  • Dom João
  • Fukuhara
  • Gardner
  • Homosassa
  • Jaffa orange
  • Jincheng
  • Joppa
  • Khettmali
  • File
  • Kona
  • Lima
  • Lue Gim Gong
  • Macetera
  • Malta
  • Maltaise Blonde
  • Maltaise Ovale
  • Marrs
  • Medan
  • Midsweet
  • Moro Tarocco
  • Narinja
  • Parson Brown
  • Pera
  • Pera Coroa
  • Pera Natal
  • Pera Rio
  • Pineapple
  • Pontianak
  • Premier
  • Rhode Red
  • Roble
  • Queen
  • Salustiana
  • Sathgudi
  • Seleta, Selecta
  • Shamouti Masry
  • Sunstar
  • Tomango
  • Verna
  • Vicieda
  • Westin
  • Xã Đoài orange

Navel Orange Varieties

  • Bahia
  • Dream navel
  • Late Navel
  • Washington or California Navel

Blood Orange Varieties

  • Maltese
  • Maro
  • Sanguinelli
  • Scarlet navel
  • Tarocco

Purchase Plants

After selecting the right variety for your business, you have to purchase plants from any of your nearest nurseries.

Orange plants are generally propagated by seeds and also vegetatively propagated by T-budding.

Planting

Seedlings are generally planted in the month of July-August after the commencement of monsoon. Orange plants are generally planted in pits of 0.5 m x 0.5 m x 0.5 m size in a square system with spacing of 4.5 meters to 6 meters accommodating 350-450 plants per hectare.

Spacing of 6 m x 6 m accommodating 120 plants per acre has been considered ideal for the present model.

Caring

Taking good care of the plants is very important for better growth of the plants and also for better fruit production.

Orange plants are very strong and hardy, and they generally require less caring. Here we are trying to describe more about the caring process of orange plants.

Fertilizing

Providing adequate fertilizers is very important for getting better production. For 1-3year old crop, apply well decomposed cowdung@10-30kg, Urea@240-720gm per tree.

For 4-7year old crop, apply well decomposed cow dung@40-80kg, Urea@960-1680gm and SSP@1375-2400gm per tree. For eight years and above crop, apply cowdung@100kg, Urea@1920gm and SSP@2750gm per Tree.

Apply whole amount of cow dung during December month whereas apply Urea in two parts, apply first of Urea in February, and second dose in April-May month. At time of applying first dose of Urea, apply whole dose of SSP fertilizer.

If fruit drop is observed, to control excessive fruit drop, take spray of 2,4-D@10gm in 500Ltr of water. Take first spray in March end, then in April end. Repeat the spray in August and September end. If cotton is planted in nearby field of citrus, avoid spraying of 2, 4-D, instead take spray of GA3. [2]

Watering/Irrigation

Water or irrigation requirement of orange tree is very high due to it’s evergreen nature throughout the year. Although, exact amount of water requirement depends upon the type of soil.

Adequate watering should be provided at the time of flowering, fruit set and fruit development stage.

Orange plants can’t tolerate water logging, so try to avoid water logging. And water of irrigation should be free from salts.

Mulching

Mulching not only helps to retain moisture but also helps to prevent weeds. You can use organic materials for mulching.

Weeding

Weeds consume nutrients from the soil. So, it’s very important to control weeds. You can control weeds by hand-hoeing and also by chemically.

If you prefer chemical method, use glyphosate at the are of 1.6 liter per 150 liter of water. Use glyphosate only on weeds not on orange plants.

Pests & Diseases

Like many other crops, orange plants are also succeptible to some pests and diseases. Here we are trying to describe more about the common pests and diseases of the orange plants.

Common Diseases & Their Management

Common diseases of the orange plants are citrus canker, gummosis, powdery mildew, black spot, collar rot, zinc defieiency and iron deficiency.

Iron Deficiency

Color of the leaves of the infected trees changes to yellowish green. This deficiency mostly occurs in case of alkaline soils. Iron chelates should be provided to the plants.

Zinc Deficiency

Zinc deficiency in orange plants is very common. It is notified as yellow areas between main lateral veins and midrib of the leaves. Twings may die back, dense shoots having stunted bushy appearance is commonly seen.

Fruits tend to become pale, elongated and become smaller in size. Provide zinc sulphate by dissolving 2 table spoons in 10 liters of water. This should be sprayed thoroughly on all the tree branches and foliage.

Collar Rot

Collar rot is caused due to fungus, and affects the bark on tree trunk. Bark begins to rot and forms a band just above ground surface (and this band decay gradually and covers the whole trunk).

Cut and scrape away the soft, infected bark to clean the trunk of the tree to protect the trees from collar rot.

Mixture of copper spray or Bordeaux mixture should be painted on the affected part of the tree. Remove all the weak, diseased and congested tree branches to ensure proper air circulation.

Black Spot

Black spot is also a fungal disease. Common symptoms of this diseases are circular, dark spots on fruits.

Copper spray in early spring should be sprayed on foliage helps to cure plants from black spots. It should be repeated in 6 weeks again.

Powdery Mildew

White cottony powdery growth is noticed on all aerial plant parts, and the leaves tend to become pale yellow and crinkle. Distorted margins are also seen. Upper surface leaves are more affected.

To control powdery mildew, affected plant parts should be removed and destroyed completely. Carbendazim, three times at 20-22 days of interval helps to control this disease.

Gummosis

Exudation of gum from the bark of the tree is the characteristic symptom of gummosis disease.

This disease can be managed through proper selection of site with proper drainage, use of resistant varieties etc.

Drench the soil with 0.2% metalaxyl MZ-72 + 0.5% trichodermaviride, which helps to control this disease. Bordeaux mixture should be applied to plant upto 50-75 cm height from ground level at least once in a year.

Citrus Canker

Plants have lesions on stems, leaves and fruits with brown, water-soaked margins. This disease can be controlled by cuttin the affected branches and twigs.

Spraying of Bordeaux mixture @1%. Aqueous solution of 550ppm, Streptomycin Sulphate is also helpful in controlling citrus canker.

Common Insect-Pests & Their management

Common pests and insects of the orange plants are aphids and mealy bugs, orange shoot borer, scale insects, cutrys ostkka and leaf miner.

Aphids & Mealy Bugs

Aphids and mealy bugs are small sap sucking pests. Bugs are generally present on the underside of the leaves. You can use synthetic pyrethroids or pest oil to control aphids and bugs.

Orange Shoot Borer

Affected plants tend to lose it’s vigor, and it is a very serious pest of the citrus plant. It can be controlled by destroying the affected branches.

Kerosene oil/petrol injection can also help to control this insect. Monocrotophos (5ml/20ml of water) also helps to control orange shoot borer.

Scale Insects

Scale insects can be controlled with the introduction of indigenous parasitic wasps. Neem oil is also effective against them. Spraying of Parathion (0.03%) emulsion, dimethoate 150ml or malathion @0.1% are effective against scale control.

Leaf Miner

Best management for leaf miner is to leave it alone and let the natural enemies to feed upon them and parasitize their larvae. It can also be controlled by spraying Phosphomidon @1ml or Monocrotophos @1.5ml per 3-4 times fortnightly. Pheromone traps are also available for detecting leaf minor moths.

Citrus Psylla

Citrus psylla are juice sucking pests, and damage is mainly caused by Nymphs. It can be controlled by pruning of the affected plants. Spraying of Monocrotophos-0.025% or carbaryl- 0.1% can also be helpful.

Harvesting

You can start harvesting when the fruits attain proper size, shape along with attractive color. Depending upon variety, fruits are generally ready for harvesting in Mid-January to Mid-February.

Timely harvesting is very important. Because too early or too late harvesting will give poor quality fruits. Harvesting is generally done by hand.

Post Harvesting

Post harvesting tasks include grading, washing the fruits with clean water and then dip fruits in Chlorinated water at the rate of 2.5 ml per Liter water.

After that, partially dry them. To improve appearance along with to maintain good quality, do Citrashine wax coating along with foam. Then these fruits are dried under shade and then packing is done. Fruits are packed in boxes.

Yield

Yield vary depending on the age of the plants. You can expect around 50 fruits per tree from their 5th year of age. Fruit production stabilizes in the 8th year. Average production is about 700 to 800 fruits per tree after stabilization.

Marketing

Marketing oranges is very easy. You can easily sell your oranges in your local market. You can also target some large companies for selling your products.

Best Orange Farming Tips

Orange farming can be a lucrative business if done right, but it requires a lot of hard work and dedication. Here we will provide you with the best orange farming tips to help you become a successful orange farmer.

  1. Choose the Right Variety: Selecting the right variety of orange is the first step in orange farming. There are many types of oranges available in the market, but not all of them are suitable for your climate and soil. Before planting, research the varieties that grow best in your region and select the one that suits your needs.
  2. Soil Preparation: Preparing the soil before planting is critical to the success of your orange farm. The soil should be well-drained and fertile, with a pH level of 6.0-7.5. Test your soil before planting and make necessary adjustments to ensure it has the necessary nutrients for healthy orange growth.
  3. Planting: Orange trees should be planted in a sunny location with adequate spacing between trees. Planting during the cooler months is ideal, as it allows the trees to establish themselves before the onset of the hot summer weather.
  4. Watering: Watering is critical to the growth and health of your orange trees. Provide regular irrigation to keep the soil moist but not waterlogged. Too much or too little water can result in poor fruit quality and yield.
  5. Fertilization: Fertilizing your orange trees is essential for healthy growth and high yield. Apply a balanced fertilizer with a ratio of 3:1:2 (N:P:K) during the growing season. Alternatively, use organic fertilizers such as compost, manure, or bone meal.
  6. Pruning: Pruning is essential for maintaining the shape and size of your orange trees. Prune during the dormant season to remove dead or diseased branches and to encourage new growth.
  7. Pest and Disease Control: Orange trees are prone to pests and diseases, which can affect their growth and yield. Monitor your trees regularly for signs of infestation and take appropriate measures to control them. Use organic methods such as neem oil, insecticidal soap, or garlic spray.
  8. Mulching: Mulching helps retain moisture in the soil and suppresses weed growth around the base of your orange trees. Use organic materials such as straw, leaves, or grass clippings as mulch.
  9. Sun Protection: Protect your orange trees from scorching sun rays during the hot summer months. Use shade cloth or plant your trees in areas with natural shade.
  10. Harvesting: Harvesting oranges at the right time is crucial for their taste and quality. Oranges are ready for harvesting when they are fully mature and have reached their desired size and color.
  11. Post-Harvest Handling: Proper post-harvest handling is essential to maintain the quality of your oranges. Clean and sort the fruits, remove any damaged or diseased ones, and store them in a cool, dry place.
  12. Marketing: Marketing your oranges is critical to your farm’s success. Develop a marketing plan, build relationships with buyers, and explore various marketing channels such as farmers markets, online platforms, and direct selling.
  13. Record Keeping: Keeping detailed records of your orange farm’s activities is crucial for tracking progress and identifying areas for improvement. Keep records of planting dates, fertilization, pest and disease control, and yield.
  14. Irrigation Management: Proper irrigation management is critical for healthy orange growth. Use efficient irrigation methods such as drip irrigation, and adjust the frequency and amount of water based on weather conditions and the stage of growth of your trees.
  15. Soil Management: Maintaining healthy soil is essential for healthy orange trees. Monitor soil health regularly and take necessary measures such as adding organic matter or adjusting pH levels to improve soil quality.
  16. Pest and Disease Monitoring: Regular monitoring of pests and diseases is essential to catch any infestations early and prevent them from spreading. Use traps, pheromone lures, or visual inspections to monitor pests and diseases.
  17. Pest and Disease Identification: Proper identification of pests and diseases is essential to select the appropriate control measures. Consult with experts or use online resources to identify the pests and diseases affecting your orange trees.
  18. Integrated Pest Management: Integrated pest management (IPM) is a holistic approach to pest and disease control that combines various methods such as cultural, biological, and chemical control. Implement IPM practices to reduce the use of chemicals and protect the environment.
  19. Pruning Techniques: Different pruning techniques can be used for different types of orange trees, such as dwarf or standard trees. Learn the appropriate pruning techniques for your orange trees to maintain their health and shape.
  20. Weed Control: Weeds can compete with your orange trees for nutrients and water, affecting their growth and yield. Use mulching or hand weeding to control weeds around your orange trees.
  21. Insect Control: Insects such as aphids, scales, or mites can damage your orange trees and affect their fruit quality. Use appropriate insecticides or insecticidal soap to control insect infestations.
  22. Disease Control: Diseases such as citrus greening, black spot, or powdery mildew can affect your orange trees’ health and yield. Use appropriate fungicides or cultural practices such as pruning or improving soil health to prevent and control disease outbreaks.
  23. Climate Considerations: Different types of oranges require different climate conditions to thrive. Consider your local climate and choose the appropriate variety of oranges for your region.
  24. Pollination: Oranges require pollination to produce fruit. Ensure that you have enough pollinators such as bees or butterflies in your farm to ensure healthy fruit development.
  25. Farm Maintenance: Regular farm maintenance such as clearing debris, repairing irrigation systems, or fixing fences is essential for the smooth operation of your orange farm.

These are the common steps and ways for starting and operating a successful orange farming business. Hope this guide has helped you! Good luck & may God bless you!

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