Commercial mustard farming is not a new business idea. People are doing mustard production business for making money from the ancient time. It’s a very easy business for anyone having little farming experience.
Mustard is actually one of several plant species in the genera Brassica and Sinapis in the family Brassicaceae (the masterd family).
Mostly, the mustard seed is used as a spice and it is very common and popular in Indian and some other South Asian countries.
Mustard seeds and the plants are used in many different purposes. Grinding and mixing the seeds with water, vinegar or other liquids creates the yellow condiment known as prepared mustard.
Mustard oil available in the market is made from pressing the seeds. The leaves of the mustard plants are also edible and can be eaten as mustard greens.
However, starting commercial mustard farming is very easy and you can start this business even if you are a beginner. It’s a short time crop, but profit is good.
Uses of Mustard
Mustard seeds, plants and leaves have many different uses. Mustard seeds and its oil is used for culinary purpose. Young leaves are used for vegetable purpose. Its oil cake is used for feeding cattle.
Advantages of Mustard Farming Business
Like many other commercial agrifarming business, mustard farming also has numerous advantages. Commercial production is profitable and anyone can do this business. However, here we are tying to list the top advantages of commercial mustard farming business.
- Starting commercial mustard farming business is very easy and simple. Anyone can start this business with little experience.
- It’s a very good business for the beginners. You can easily start this business if you are a beginner.
- Large scale or commercial mustard farming is a very old and established business.
- Many people are already doing this business for making money. So, you don’t have to worry much about starting and operating this business.
- Mustard plants grow very fast and they are very strong and hardy.
- The mustard plants generally require less caring and other management. So, labor costs will be less.
- Both demand and value of mustard and it’s products are high in the market. So, profits will also be good from commercial mustard production business.
- Marketing mustard and all it’s products is very easy, as all products have very good demand and value.
- You can also start growing mustard in your home garden for family consumption.
- Commercial production of mustard is profitable.
- So, it can be a great employment source for the people. Especially, for the educated but unemployed people.
- Production cost of mustard is relatively less as compared to other crop farming business.
- Mustard plants generally require less water. So, irrigation costs will be less.
- Mustard seeds, oil, leaves all are very nutritious and healthy. You can enjoy fresh mustard if you start your own mustard farming business.
How to Start Mustard Farming
Starting commercial mustard farming business is very easy and simple. It’s just like any other crop farming business.
Here we are trying to describe everything about starting and operating a successful mustard farming business from planting, caring to harvesting and marketing.
First of all, you have to select a very good location for starting your mustard farming business. The mustard plants generally grow well in full sunny areas with good drainage system.
Light to heavy soil is considered good for commercial mustard farming business.
Prepare the Soil
Preparing the soil perfectly is also very important for commercial mustard farming business. Mustard seeds require a fine seed bed for good germination.
Do ploughing of soil for 2-3 times followed by 2 harrowing. Do planking after every ploughing.
Climate Requirement For Mustard Farming
Mustard plants grow well in subtropical climate. The plants thrives well in dry and cool climate, so it is mostly grown as a Rabi season crop in Indian sub-continent.
The crop require temperatures between 10°C and 25°C. It is generally grown in the areas receiving 600-1000 mm yearly rainfall. These plants can tolerate frost, so they require clear sky with frost free conditions.
Choose a Variety
There are many local and hybrid mustard varieties available to choose from. You can choose any variety depending on it’s availability and production ability in your area. You can also consult with some existing farmer in your area for having better recommendation.
Propagation of mustard plant is done through seeds.
Mustard seeds are highly available throughout the world. You can purchase the seeds from any of your nearest seed supply stores. You can also consider ordering the seeds online.
September to October month is the optimum time for sowing mustard seeds. Although, the time of sowing mustard seeds depend upon cultivation of main crop, if it is grown as an intercrop.
Treat the seeds with thiram at a rate of 3 grams per kg of mustard seed for protecting the plants from seed diseases.
The mustard crop generally require less caring and other management. Although, taking additional caring will help the plants to grow well and produce more. Here we are trying to describe the common caring process of the mustard plants.
Try to add as much organic fertilizers as you can while preparing the soil. Soil testing is required for accurate fertilizer dose.
Apply N:P in ratio of 25:8 kg per acre in form of Urea 55 kg per acre and Super phosphate 50 kg per acre, under irrigated condition. And apply potassium dose only when oil sow the deficiency of it.
For Rabi season crop, apply N:P:K in ratio of 40:12:6 kg per acre acre in form of Urea 90 kg, SSP 75 kg and MOP 10 kg per acre.
And apply Urea 33 kg per acre and Super Phosphate 50 kg per acre, for rainfed mustard crop.
Pre-sowing irrigation is required before sowing seeds for mustard crop. And the crop also require additional irrigation for good growth. Generally, 3 irrigation is required at an interval of 3 weeks after sowing.
Controlling weeds is also very important for commercial mustard farming business, because weeds consume nutrients from the soil.
Take 2-3 weeding and 2 harrowing at an interval of 2 weeks when intensity of weeds is low.
Pre-plant incorporation of Trifluralin at the rate of 400 ml per 200 liters of water per acre will be helpful for controlling the weeds.
Pests & Diseases
Aphid, hairy caterpillar and painted bugs are the common pests of the mustard plants. Blight, downy mildew and white rust are the common diseases of these plants. Consult with a local expert or contact your nearest agriculture extension office to know more about controlling all these pests and diseases.
Mustard crop requires relatively less time from planting to harvesting. Generally, it takes 110 to 140 days to mature.
Harvest the crop when the pods turn yellow and the seeds become hard. Try to carry out harvesting in morning hours to avoid shattering loss.
Cut the crops close to ground, with the help of sickle. After then stacked harvested crops for 7-10 days. Then complete threshing operation after proper drying.
Sun dry the cleaned seeds for 4-5 days or till the moisture content in the seeds comes down to 8 percent. Store the seeds in gunny bags or bin, after proper drying of the seeds.
It’s very tough to tell the exact number. It depends on numerous factors such as variety, soil fertility, seed quality, climate etc.
But on an average, you can expect a yield of 400 kg per hectare. And this number can be increased to 1000 kg per hectare, under good variety and good farm management actives.
Marketing mustard is very easy and simple. You can easily sell the mustard seeds in your local market. Although, you should set your marketing strategies, before starting this business commercially.
These are the common steps and ways for starting and operating a successful mustard farming business. Hope this guide has helped you! Good luck & May God bless you!
Frequently Asked Questions
People ask many questions about mustard farming. Here we are trying to list the most common questions about mustard farming business, and trying to answer them. Hope you will find your answer. Don’t hesitate to ask us if you have more questions.
Is mustard farming profitable?
Yes, mustard farming is a very profitable business. You can make good profits from this business.
How to start mustard farming business?
Starting a profitable mustard farming business is very easy and simple. You can easily start this business for making money. First of all, select a very good location, select a good variety, prepare the soil, plant the seeds, water the plants and your plants will producing flowers and seeds after a few weeks.
How profitable is mustard farming?
Mustard farming is very profitable. You can make very good profits from this business. Although, it’s not possible to tell the exact amount. Please consult with an existing farmers in your area for having some ideas.
Is growing mustard profitable?
Yes, growing mustard is a very profitable business. You can make good profits from this business.
How long does it take mustard to grow?
Depends on the variety. But most of the mustard variety become ready for harvesting within 110 to 140 days from planting.
What season does mustard grow?
The mustard plants generally grow well during the dry season from September-October to February-March.
Is mustard easy to grow?
Yes, growing mustard is very easy and simple. Even the beginners can also start this business for making money.
Does mustard regrow after cutting?
No, the plants don’t regrow after cutting.
Can mustard be grown in all seasons?
Yes, you can grow mustard in all seasons for vegetable purpose. But if you want to grow mustard for seeds, then you have to plant them during the dry seasons from September-October to February-March.
What is the life cycle of mustard?
Mustard plants have eight principle growth stages throughout the life cycle: germination, leaf development, stem elongation, inflorescence emergence, flowering, fruit development, ripening and senescence.
Which fertilizer is best for mustard?
Every fertilizer is essential for the mustard plants. But Nitrogen is essential for vigorous growth of the plants. Nitrogen is also essential for high yield and good quality of the seeds. Providing organic fertilizers also ensure good production of the mustard.
Which type of soil is required for mustard?
Alluvial loam soil with good drainage system is considered very good for growing mustard. You will be able to have better production if you apply organic fertilizers in your land.
Where is mustard grown most?
Canada is the world’s leading producer of mustard seed followed by Nepal and Russian Federation.
How much water does a mustard plant need?
The mustard plants generally require less water than most other crops. Providing 2 irrigation will be enough from planting to harvesting.
Why do farmers plant mustard?
Most of the farmers plant mustard for making money from their land by selling mustard seeds. The seed is mainly used for making oil and the oil cake is used for many different purposes.
Does mustard need to be pollinated?
No, mustard is actually an insect-pollinated type of crop. Plant mustard and the bees and other insects will do their job.
How many times can you harvest mustard greens?
No, limit. You can harvest the greens continuously throughout the season.
Which mustard variety is best?
Depends on your location, and the variety can vary from place to place. Please consult with some existing farmers in your area.
How much mustard is produced per acre?
Exact yield depends on numerous factors. But on an average, you can expect around or up to 1 ton seeds per acre.
Does mustard like wet soil?
No, the mustard plants don’t like wet soil. They generally grow well in moist soil.
How do you increase mustard yield?
Applying adequate organic fertilizers will help to increase mustard yield.
How do you take care of mustard?
Give the plants plenty of sun or partial shade, and keep in mind that mustard greens like cool weather and grow rapidly. You can fertilize with a balanced fertilizer, but often these vegetables don’t need it when in a well amended vegetable garden soil.