Columbia Sheep

The Columbia sheep is a breed of domestic sheep from the United States. It is one of the first sheep breeds which was developed from in the United States.

It was developed and a product of USDA and university research. Main aim for creating this breed was to develop such an improved breed that is adapted to the Western ranges of the country where majority of the sheep population are raised.

The breed was developed during the beginning in 1912. The Laramie, Lincoln and Wyoming rams were crossed with Rambouillet ewes.

And the foundation flock was moved to the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station near Dubois, Idaho in 1918, for further refinement.

Today, the Columbia sheep is a popular breed of domestic sheep in it’s native area.

They are popular for their heavy, white fleece and good growth characteristics.

And the breed is one of the larger sheep breeds, and it is often used for cross breeding in commercial western flocks. Read some more information about this breed below.

Columbia Sheep Characteristics

The Columbia sheep are large animals with white face. They are mainly white in color, and they have wool all over their bodies except for their bare.

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They have many similarities with the Corriedale sheep. But the Columbia sheep are much larger than the Corriedale sheep. Their feet is black and have a black muzzle.

Average live body weight of the mature Columbia rams is between 125 and 181 kg. And the mature ewe’s average live body weight vary from 79 to 136 kg. Photo and info from Wikipedia.


The Columbia sheep are dual-purpose animals. They are good and raised for both wool and meat production. But today, the breed is raised mainly for wool production.

Special Notes

Today the Columbia sheep are very popular breed of domestic sheep. They are hardy and well adapted to their local environments.

They were actually developed for range conditions, and they have proved admirably adaptable to the lush grasses and farm flock management of the middle west, east, north and south.

Today the Columbia sheep is raised for both meat and wool production. They produce good quality wool with a staple length of 3.5 to 5 inches, and a fiber diameter of 31 to 24 microns.

The wool is classified as medium with a spin count of 50s to 60s. The breed is also good for meat production. The lambs grow relatively faster and are resilient and hardy.

The ewes are excellent mothers and are a popular choice on large farms due to their ability to easily deliver large and strong lambs. However, review full breed profile of the Columbia sheep in the following chart.

Breed NameColumbia
Other NameNone
Breed PurposeMainly wool, but also good for meat production
Special NotesVery hardy and strong animals, well suited to native climates, hardy and were actually developed for range conditions, today raised mainly for wool production but are also good for meat production, grow relatively faster, resilient and hardy, ewes are excellent mothers
Breed SizeLarge
WeightMature ram’s live body weight is between 125 and 181 kg, and the mature ewe’s average live body weight vary from 79 to 136 kg.
Climate ToleranceLocal climates
Country/Place of OriginUnited States

Columbia Sheep Facts

Here are some of the interesting facts about Columbia Sheep.

  1. History and Origin: The Columbia breed was developed in the early 1900s by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the University of Wyoming
  2. The aim was to create a breed of sheep that would be well-suited to the range conditions in the Western United States. The breed was created by crossing Rambouillet rams with Lincoln ewes. The first Columbia Sheep was born in 1912 in Wyoming.
  3. Physical Characteristics: Columbia Sheep are large and muscular animals. They have a white woolly coat, a broad forehead, and a Roman nose. They have long and droopy ears, and their tails are naturally short. The average weight of a mature Columbia Sheep ranges from 200 to 300 pounds, with rams being heavier than ewes.
  4. Adaptability: Columbia Sheep are known for their adaptability to various environmental conditions. They are well-suited to the range conditions in the Western United States, where they can survive in both hot and cold weather. They are also well-suited to pasture and feedlot operations.
  5. Reproduction: Columbia Sheep are prolific breeders, and they are known for their ability to produce large litters. Ewes typically have a gestation period of around 145 days and can give birth to as many as three lambs at a time.
  6. Meat Quality: Columbia Sheep are primarily raised for their meat, which is of excellent quality. The meat is lean and tender, with a mild flavor. It is also well-marbled, which adds to its flavor and tenderness.
  7. Wool Quality: Columbia Sheep produce high-quality wool, which is valued for its softness and durability. The wool is typically used for making clothing, blankets, and other textiles.
  8. Temperament: Columbia Sheep are generally docile and easy to handle, which makes them a popular choice among sheep farmers. They are known for their calm and friendly temperament, which makes them ideal for small farms and hobby farms.
  9. Health and Longevity: Columbia Sheep are generally healthy and hardy animals. They are known for their longevity, with some sheep living up to 10 years or more. However, like all livestock, they can be susceptible to certain health problems, such as parasites, respiratory infections, and foot rot.
  10. Breeding Programs: Columbia Sheep are popular among sheep breeders, and there are many breeding programs dedicated to improving the breed. These programs aim to produce sheep with improved meat quality, wool quality, and disease resistance.
  11. Popularity: Columbia Sheep are a popular breed of sheep in the Western United States, where they are primarily raised for meat and wool production. They are also popular among sheep farmers who are looking for a hardy and versatile breed of sheep.

Tips for Raising Columbia Sheep

Raising Columbia Sheep can be a rewarding and fulfilling experience. These hardy and versatile sheep are known for their excellent meat quality and high-quality wool. However, raising them can also be challenging, especially for those who are new to sheep farming. Here we will provide some tips for raising Columbia Sheep.

  1. Provide Adequate Shelter: Columbia Sheep are hardy animals, but they still require adequate shelter to protect them from extreme weather conditions. The shelter should be large enough to accommodate the entire flock, and it should provide protection from wind, rain, and snow. It should also be well-ventilated to prevent the buildup of moisture and ammonia.
  2. Provide Clean Water: Clean water is essential for the health and well-being of Columbia Sheep. They require access to fresh, clean water at all times, especially during hot weather when they may drink more than usual. Make sure to clean and refill water troughs regularly to prevent the buildup of bacteria and algae.
  3. Provide Adequate Nutrition: Columbia Sheep require a balanced diet that includes both forage and supplemental feed. They are primarily grazers, and they require access to pasture or hay to meet their nutritional needs. In addition, they may require supplemental feed during times when pasture or hay is not available, such as during the winter months.
  4. Provide Adequate Grazing Space: Columbia Sheep require adequate grazing space to meet their nutritional needs. They require at least 2-3 acres of pasture per animal, depending on the quality of the pasture. Overgrazing can lead to soil erosion and the depletion of nutrients from the soil, so it is important to rotate grazing areas regularly.
  5. Practice Good Health Management: Columbia Sheep are susceptible to a variety of health problems, including parasites, respiratory infections, and foot rot. To prevent these problems, it is important to practice good health management practices. This includes regular deworming, vaccination, and hoof trimming.
  6. Provide Adequate Fencing: Columbia Sheep are active animals and require adequate fencing to prevent them from escaping or getting into areas where they should not be. Fencing should be at least 4-5 feet high and should be strong enough to withstand the weight of the sheep. Electric fencing can also be an effective way to contain sheep.
  7. Practice Good Breeding Management: Breeding management is important to maintain the health and genetic diversity of the flock. It is important to only breed healthy animals with desirable traits. This includes selecting breeding stock that is free of genetic defects and has good conformation, meat quality, and wool quality.
  8. Maintain Cleanliness: Maintaining a clean environment is important for the health and well-being of Columbia Sheep. This includes cleaning and disinfecting barns, feeders, and water troughs regularly. It also includes removing manure and other waste materials from the pasture to prevent the buildup of bacteria and parasites.
  9. Monitor for Signs of Illness: Monitoring Columbia Sheep for signs of illness is important to catch health problems early. Common signs of illness include lethargy, loss of appetite, coughing, and diarrhea. It is important to seek veterinary care if any of these symptoms are observed.
  10. Be Prepared for Emergencies: Emergencies can happen at any time, so it is important to be prepared. This includes having a first aid kit on hand, knowing how to administer basic first aid, and having a plan in place for emergencies such as severe weather or power outages.

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