Pig farming in Nigeria is becoming very popular day by day. It is a wonderful business idea and very profitable. You can get return of your total investment within very short time. Pig farming is very easy and pig meat has a huge global popularity. This is the main reason of increasing this business in Nigeria. The economy of Nigeria is mostly dependent on agriculture. And various types of agri business related to agriculture sector are contributing much to the national income and total economy of Nigeria. Along with traditional business ideas, pig farming in Nigeria can play an important role in eradicating unemployment, poverty, nutrition lacking and many more. By raising pigs commercially, you can both fulfill your family nutrition demands and earn some extra cash.
Advantages of Pig Farming in Nigeria
There are many advantages of pig farming in Nigeria. Here I am describing the main advantages of commercial pig farming business in Nigeria.
- The reproduction period and system of pig is faster than any other livestock like cattle or goats.
- Pig can convert more energy/nutrient into protein and as a result they grow faster than cattle, goats or other livestock animals.
- Pigs can survive and produce more by consuming little amount of low quality foods. You can feed them roughage, kitchen garbage, agricultural waste etc. for the purpose of reducing feeding cost.
- Need less amount of investment. Although, investment depends on the size of your farm.
- Many Nigerians are experiencing malnutrition problem due to absence of sufficient protein in their regular food. By raising pigs, we can meet up this demand.
- A large amount of daily necessary protein derives from plant and a little amount from animals. Animal protein is very essential for human body because of it’s high biological value and contains the building stones for good health and proper growth. By raising pigs, we can easily meet up this demand.
- A sow generally give birth of piglets twice a year. Each time they give birth of 10 piglets (sometimes more). And the gestation period is not more than 115 days. So, you can go for large scale commercial production within very short time if you start with few pigs.
- Weather condition and geographical location of Nigeria is very suitable for pig farming.
- Very profitable business idea with great ROI (Return of Investment) ratio.
Starting Pig Farming in Nigeria
Pig farming in Nigeria can be a great source of employment and income. You can start raising pigs both in domestically and commercially. For commercial pig farming in Nigeria, follow the steps listed bellow.
Before starting pig farming business in Nigeria, you must have to acquire a suitable land. The size or area of the land will depend on the scale of your pig farming business. The more pigs you want to raise, the more land will required. Divide the land into several plots. This will help you to raise different aged pigs separately. It will be better, if you can select a land far from the residential areas. Calm and quiet place will be very effective. While selecting land for pig farming business in Nigeria, keep in mind some necessary facilities.
- Sufficient supply of fresh and clean water in the farm area. It would be better if there any pond, lake or other water source available.
- The selected area will be very near to the market.
- Good transportation systems.
- Far from the residential area.
- Foods are available near the farm land.
- Availability of all types of veterinary service.
After selecting a suitable farm land, it is very important to select proper pig breeds/piglets. Because, profitability from pig farming in Nigeria mostly depends on selecting proper piglets. You can choose both local and hybrid piglets. For commercial purpose crossbreed of exotic and local breeds are very suitable. This types of crossbreed pigs consume more feed, grow faster and become healthier than other available breeds. There are various types of crossbreeds available. So, it might difficult for you to select the right breed for your pig farming business. So, while purchasing pigs look out the following signs.
- The selected pig has a pair of bright eyes.
- Has a glossy coat.
- It must have to be alert and responsive to it’s surrounding environment.
- Never purchase and aggressive pig. The selected pig must have to have good temperament.
- It has good appeal to food.
- Easy and normal movement.
- Free from lameness or any other unnatural signs.
- Try to purchase pregnant pigs. It not available then good quality piglets are OK. During purchasing piglets, ask the producer about their parents and their health information, production history and other records. Ask the producer if the pig has been vaccinated and dewormed or not. If not, ask him to do it urgently.
Housing is very important for commercial pig farming in Nigeria. A good house can keep them healthy, productive and free from adverse climate and all types of predators. Housing also help the pigs to keep them warm during winter season and cold temperatures. It also help them to keep moderate temperature during excessive heat in summer season. Pigs are very sensitive to heat and they may become sick and die due to excessive heat or cold temperature. Controlled and moderate temperature can help to maximize the growth and production from pig farming business. Pigs can be raised both in indoors and in individual stalls, pens or barns. In case of raising the pigs in outdoor, they need special type of shelter during hot and cold weather. Keep sufficient space for feeding and bedding inside the house. Pigs generally like dry bed. So, always try to keep the house and bed dry. Also make a suitable system for protecting from extreme humidity, heat and cold. For indoor raising make proper and sufficient ventilation systems in the house. Ensure sufficient flow of fresh air and light inside the house. Make a proper drainage inside the house to keep the house dry. Good sanitation system inside the house is very important for pig farming. Make housing with good sanitation facilities so that you can easily clean the house.
Feeding good quality, fresh and nutritious food can make your pigs healthier and ensure proper growth. Good food also help to prevent various types of diseases. You can feed your pigs almost everything including roughage, kitchen garbage, agricultural waste, stalk from beverage companies etc. For commercial production you have to feed your pigs at least twice a day. Generally, pigs eat both grains and meat. You can also feed your pigs with cooked table scraps, rice and vegetables. Among all the food elements, corn is the most common food of pigs. Soybeans or cooked meat can be a great source of protein for the pigs. Pigs will grow faster, if you can necessary nutrition elements, vitamins and other supplements. Piglets require more protein than the mature pigs. You can buy ready-made pig food from the market or make your own mixture prepared at home. Along with providing nutritious and fresh food, always serve them sufficient amount of clean and fresh water. Pigs require a huge amount of water daily. So, make a great source of clean and fresh water available in the farm area.
Breeding process of pigs are easy and simple. Generally, the gestation period of pigs is not more than 115 days. Sow give birth of piglets twice a year. And produce more than 10 kids each time. After delivery, the kids will be feed on the breast milk for their first nine weeks of age. After completing the grower stage of piglets, the sow become suitable for mating again.
There is a good market of pigs meat. You can sell your products in your local market or international market. China is the world largest pig meat consumers. Pig meat is tasty, nutritious and has a great global popularity.
Pig farming in Nigeria has a great business opportunities for unemployed educated people, women and for the people who want to raise pigs commercially. If you are beginner in this business, try to learn more about pig farming, read a lots of books, visit pig farms as much as possible and finally do it.