Modern Farming Methods http://www.roysfarm.com Sun, 22 Feb 2015 08:04:50 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Poultry Farming For Beginners http://www.roysfarm.com/poultry-farming-for-beginners/ http://www.roysfarm.com/poultry-farming-for-beginners/#comments Sun, 22 Feb 2015 08:03:24 +0000 http://www.roysfarm.com/?p=3157 Following a poultry farming for beginners guide will help you a lot for setting up your new poultry farming business. As poultry farming has already proven to be lucrative business, so you may be willing to start a farm for your new source of income. In broad, poultry farming means raising various types of domestic […]

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Following a poultry farming for beginners guide will help you a lot for setting up your new poultry farming business. As poultry farming has already proven to be lucrative business, so you may be willing to start a farm for your new source of income. In broad, poultry farming means raising various types of domestic birds commercially for the purpose of meat, eggs and feather production. But here we are describing poultry farming for beginners guide about chickens. Chicken’s products are among the major source of animal protein, aside from beef, pork and fish. And chickens are already an integral part of human life. Small scale poultry production fulfill the animal nutrition demand for a family. But large scale or commercial basis poultry farming offer an opportunity for the people to earn big amount of money. That’s why there are many poultry farms out there. Poultry farming is a suitable business for the people who are passionate about livestock farming, keeping birds and who are comfortable with farm life. Poultry farming is a highly profitable business if you can run it properly under acceptable methods and conditions conducive for the birds. Actually each type of farming business follows specific operational principles for making good profit. And when such principles are ignored by the farm management system, it results in serious loses. So before starting, it is wise to learn more about the business. Take some time and try to understand why most of the poultry farmers make good profits and some of them fail. Some of the farmers, especially beginners have been forced out of the business when they could not operate it properly and thus lose money. Successful poultry farming business is involved with lot of works and it’s easy at the same time. But it’s not a lazy man’s business. You have to do everything timely and perfectly according to a plan. However, here we are trying to discuss details about poultry farming for beginners.

How to Start the Business
Follow the step by step process for starting your new poultry farming business. Starting a poultry farming business is easy and involved with lots of regular work at the same time. Here we are tying to include all details you will need for the business.

Have Your Investment Ready
Poultry farming requires investment. You can arrange the money by your own or you can apply for bank loan. Both govt. and non-govt. bank loans are available for starting poultry farming business. You should contact your desired bank for the loan process. As a beginner, you should start with a minimum number of birds which will cost you pretty less money.

Production Type
First of all determine the production type of your poultry farm. You can raise broiler chickens for meat production purpose and choose layers if you want to produce eggs commercially. You can also start your poultry farm for selling poultry products and breeding stocks directly to your local customers. Determine your production purpose, select proper poultry breeds according to your desired production and go for the detailed planning.poultry farming, poultry farming for beginners, poultry farming for beginners guide, how to start poultry farming

Set Farm Location
Selecting a good farm location for your business is very important. You should select such a location which has all required facilities and favorable for your business. It can be slightly far from the town, where land and labor is pretty cheap. But don’t setup the farm too far from the town. Because most of the towns have high density population, and you have to target that market. Also try to avoid setting up the farm in residential areas, because poultry farms produce offensive odor. While selecting the farm location, consider transportation system and medication facilities also.

Construct House
After selecting farm location, construct a good house for your birds. Ensure all required facilities are available in the new house. There are three types of poultry housing system you can use. Extensive, semi intensive and intensive. For commercial production, intensive system is most convenient. You can raise your birds in floor or in cage system. On an average, broiler poultry needs about 2.5 square feet space and layer poultry needs about 4 square feet space. For example, if you want to raise 200 layers then you have to ensure about 800 square feet space is available. About 4 square feet space is required per bird in cage system. Don’t forget to add proper lighting and ventilation system in the house.

Purchase Required Equipment
You need to purchase some equipment for your poultry farm. List of required equipment are listed below for running a poultry farm successfully.

  • Feeders
  • Waterers
  • Nests
  • Cages
  • Coops
  • Crates
  • Incubator
  • Egg tray
  • Lighting instruments
  • Perches
  • Brooders or heaters
  • Ventilation system
  • Waste disposal system

Labor or Manpower
Based on the number of birds, you need more or less manpower/labor. As a beginner, if you start with a minimum number of birds (200-500) then you can manage your farm by yourself easily. If you plan for raising more birds then you will need additional manpower. Ensure cheap labor is available in your selected area.

Purchasing Chicks
After setting everything up and having everything ready, purchase quality chicks from trusted breeder in your area and start caring them. Set the brooder ready before arriving the chicks from breeding house to your farm. As a beginner, it is wise to start with day old chicks instead of older chicks. If you are a complete beginner without any prior experience, keep the number of chicks to minimum (anyhow not more than 500).

Feeding
Feeding is the most important part of poultry farming business. After constructing house and purchasing equipment and chicks, you have to spend a large amount of money for feeding your birds. About 70% of your total project expenses will go towards the feeding. And the success in the business also depends on quality and adequate feeding. You can purchase the feed ingredients from the market and prepare the feed by yourself or purchase ready-made poultry feeds from the market. Different types of commercial poultry feeds are available in the market for each type of birds. Please review the following webpages for more details about poultry feeding.
Broiler poultry feed
Layer poultry feedpoultry farming, poultry farming for beginners, poultry farming for beginners guide, how to start poultry farming

Health Management
As we have mentioned above, you have to ensure proper medication system in your area. Poultry birds are prone to various types of diseases and you have to be ready for controlling them. We know ‘prevention is better than cure’, so you have to be conscious and take proper care of your birds to keep them safe. Vaccinate them timely and always try to provide them fresh water and food. Also stock some required vaccine and medicine so that you can use them when needed.

Marketing
Good marketing strategies influence the profit from your business. If you can sell your products in the market easily, then it will encourage you in getting more production. We always recommend determining marketing facilities in your area before starting any farming business. Because your business will not be much profitable if you can’t market your products properly.

Hope this poultry farming for beginners guide will help you to plan for your new business. Before starting, try to learn more about the business and visit some farms if possible. Consult with other farmers in your area and start with a minimum number of birds for the first time. Gather experience and gradually expand your farm.

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Raising Turkeys From Poults http://www.roysfarm.com/raising-turkeys-from-poults/ http://www.roysfarm.com/raising-turkeys-from-poults/#comments Sat, 07 Feb 2015 10:53:36 +0000 http://www.roysfarm.com/?p=3096 Raising turkeys from poults is just like keeping and growing other poultry birds. But you should be careful before starting to raise turkey flock with day-od poults. You have to ensure they grow into healthy, happy and productive adult turkeys. With proper care and some preparation, your baby turkeys will grow well and live happily. […]

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Raising turkeys from poults is just like keeping and growing other poultry birds. But you should be careful before starting to raise turkey flock with day-od poults. You have to ensure they grow into healthy, happy and productive adult turkeys. With proper care and some preparation, your baby turkeys will grow well and live happily. Here we are discussing about raising turkeys from poults.

Bringing Poults to Farm
After arriving the poults to your farm, inspect each poult one by one when you move them from the transport box. Dip the beak of each poult in water as soon as you keep them into the brooder. Doing this will teach them where the water is and how to drink. In the case of shipped poults, they will be stressed from the transport process. So ensure that they are eating and drinking well for the first two weeks.

Caring Poults
You have to set up a brooder for your turkey poults, just like for baby chicks. As the turkey poult brooder is just like the brooder for baby chickens, you can use those resources for designing your turkey poult’s brooder. But you have to set everything up and warm the brooder to 95° to 98° before bringing your poults. After bringing the poults inside the brooder, they will stay at the edges of the heating source if they are too hot, or will huddle under the lap if they are too cold (just like baby chicks). So you should monitor the behavior of your poults and using a thermometer will be helpful guide to temperature. You have to lower the temperature inside the brooder at the rate of 5° per week until the temperature is the same as the outdoors. Or lower the temperature at the same rate (5° per week) for 6 weeks. You can lower the temperature by raising the heat lamp a few inches each week. Always have the poult’s feeders and waterers filled and placed properly. You shouldn’t keep the poults right under the lamp, but also don’t keep them too far from the center. Place the feeders and waterers in such a way so that the poults can easily get food and water without getting either overheated or chilled. Hanging feeders work fine for turkey poults. It will prevent poults from standing and pooping in the feed or knocking it over. You can use pine shavings for the bottom of the brooder (never use cedar). Some people also use clean sand for the bottom of the brooder when the poults are three weeks old. Using sand is easy to clean and keeps the brooder dry. Ensure roosts and pen ready for them to move to after they outgrow and also have their pasture ready.raising turkeys from poults, raising turkeys

Preventing Problems
Particularly, turkey poults are prone to “starving out”. Starving out means some poults will hang back or get pushed away from the feeder, and they will actually starve to death despite food being available. While your poults are feeding, keep a close eye on them for ensuring this doesn’t happen. In some cases, overcrowding can also cause some problems. Overcrowding can contribute to starving out. So it is wise to ensure plenty of space inside the house for your poults. Ensure at least a 10ft x 10ft space available for a dozen of day-old poults. They will need more space in accordance with they get bigger.

Adding Roosts
Roosts are very important for turkeys. You can add a roost to your brooder by the three weeks of age of your turkeys. Roosts helps to keep the birds safe and they will feel extra comfort. They will sleep warmer and more comfortably. Teaching turkeys to roost early will help them when they are eventually moved to roosts later.

Feeding & Watering
Please keep in mind that feeding and watering turkeys play a very important role in the growth and health. You might thinking about feeding your turkey poults. There are various types of poultry feeds available in the market (starter, grower, finisher, medicated, non-medicated etc). But turkeys need such feeds which is high in protein, more than chickens. Usually poultry starter or gamebird starter feed has around 28 percent protein. And these starter feed works for turkey poults for the first 12 weeks (medicated or non-medicated is your choice). Most of the small scale farmers like to use non-medicated feeds. The protein in your turkey poult’s feed can be lowered to 20 percent after their 12 weeks of age. But lower than this rate will result your turkeys won’t grow as big as they could. Along with providing well balanced and nutritious feeds, ensure availability of sufficient amount of fresh and clean water for your poults.

Moving Outside
In accordance to the growth of your poults, make your poult’s brooder bigger so they are not overcrowded. Lower the temperature of brooder every week at the rate of 5° until they reach 6 weeks of age. For reducing temperature, you can raise the lamp or switch to lower wattage bulbs as they grow. You will need to harden off your turkey poults by exposing them to outside temperatures gradually. You can allow your poults to access to an enclosed sun porch on nice days by their three weeks of age.

You can move your poults to the new house by their eight weeks of age. They should be fully feathered within this age. Ensure all your birds are fully feathered before moving them. At this age, you can give them access to outdoors. But you should still provide the lamp at night for a week or two. And then you can move them to their new, grown-up turkey house, roosts and pen. Monitor them nightly for a few days after moving them to the new house. Ensure that they are not getting damp or chilled. Thus you can grow poults to healthy turkeys.

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Turkey Diseases and Problems http://www.roysfarm.com/turkey-diseases-and-problems/ http://www.roysfarm.com/turkey-diseases-and-problems/#comments Fri, 23 Jan 2015 16:55:55 +0000 http://www.roysfarm.com/?p=3053 Turkeys are great bird for raising in your farm. They are also good as pets. But there are some diseases and problems in turkeys. They are like other poultry birds such as chickens and susceptible to diseases and other problems. Whether you raise turkeys as pets, for meat or as a breeding flock, you should […]

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Turkeys are great bird for raising in your farm. They are also good as pets. But there are some diseases and problems in turkeys. They are like other poultry birds such as chickens and susceptible to diseases and other problems. Whether you raise turkeys as pets, for meat or as a breeding flock, you should be aware of turkey diseases and problems for avoiding losses and heartbreak of losing your flock. Here we are describing about some turkey diseases and problems. Proper care and preventive methods will be helpful for preventing such turkey diseases and other health problems.

Airsacculitis
Airsacculitis is a respiratory disease and it affects the air sacs of turkeys. Actually you can’t treat airsacculitis, but only prevent this disease. The main prevention for this disease is to ensuring purchase of poults from disease free hatchery that tests for the disease in their breeding hens and toms. The poults can get the disease before they are even born. Because the disease is transmitted in the eggs.

Blackhead
Blackhead is a common disease to chickens. It can also affect turkey birds even it causes no symptoms in chickens. So you should not raise turkey poults and baby chicks together. And if you keep both chickens and turkeys, then ensure separate house for each birds. Never raise turkeys and chickens or any other poultry birds in the same house. And while selecting turkey house it will be better if you place it in such a location where chickens have not been before. If you can’t keep your turkeys separate from chickens, then you can purchase some drugs and feed your turkeys for preventing blackhead.turkey diseases, diseases of turkeys, turkey diseases and problems

Cannibalism
Cannibalism is actually not a disease. It is a problem in the turkey flock and common in most other poultry birds. You can stop cannibalism by giving your birds enough living and range space. Usually 75 by 75 feet space will be sufficient enough for every 20 turkeys on range. Also ensure proper ventilation system inside their house. Because overheating can also cause cannibalism.

Coccidiosis
Coccidiosis is a common disease in turkeys that can cause diarrhea and lack of “thrift” or good growth in poults. You can use medicated feed containing drugs for preventing this disease. Always try to keep the litter dry and it is very important. Because coccidiosis spreads and grows in dirty and wet litter. Letting your poults outside onto pasture by their eight weeks of age and moving roosts to fresh ground inside the house frequently will help to prevent this disease. You can also vaccinate your chicks against coccidiosis. In case of applying vaccination, you should not feed your birds with medicated feeds. Because feeding medicated feeds after applying vaccines will inactive the vaccine’s activity.

Predators
There are some animals and birds around which can harm your turkeys. For keeping your birds happy and safe, you must prevent predators. Always try to provide roosts for your birds. This will not only keep them happy, but also keep them safe from predators who will have to climb to reach your birds (in the wild, turkeys roost very safely very high in trees). The higher you can make the roosts, the safer your turkeys will feel. Make fence around your turkey pen, and this will prevent some deter predators. It will be better if you can cover the top of the fence with netting.

Preventing Turkey Diseases
Allowing your birds with fresh air and range, large pen with roosts, moving your bird’s roosts (if possible the house also) frequently to fresh ground etc. are some best ways for preventing turkey diseases. Moving the roosts frequently to fresh ground will ensure the manure doesn’t pile up in one location. Provide your birds with nutritious foods, fresh and clean water and always take good care of them.

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Feeding and Watering Turkeys http://www.roysfarm.com/feeding-and-watering-turkeys/ http://www.roysfarm.com/feeding-and-watering-turkeys/#comments Sat, 17 Jan 2015 10:28:49 +0000 http://www.roysfarm.com/?p=3018 Learning about feeding and watering turkeys properly can help a lot for preventing different problems as well as save you money on feed and water. The system of feeding and watering turkeys have similarity to chickens. Your previous experience of raising chickens or ducks will help a lot. Although there are many different choices of […]

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Learning about feeding and watering turkeys properly can help a lot for preventing different problems as well as save you money on feed and water. The system of feeding and watering turkeys have similarity to chickens. Your previous experience of raising chickens or ducks will help a lot. Although there are many different choices of types of waterers and feeders, and different ones may be appropriate for specific situations. You have to emphasis on feeding quality feeds and clean water for keeping them healthy and productive.

Types of Turkey Feed
You can use poultry feeds for feeding your turkeys. But turkeys require more protein than chickens. Feed of poults should contain at least 28 percent protein and adult bird’s feeds should contain at least 20 percent protein. Use gamebird starter or chick starter feed for turkey poults for the first six weeks. Then switch to a grower feed after six weeks. Usually turkeys reach marketing size within their six months of age. On an average, a tom will need approximately 100 pounds of feed and a hen will need about 60 pounds of feed for reaching marketing size (in six months).

Feeding and Watering Poults
Give special attention to your birds from when they are poults. Ensure you have feeders and waterers set up and filled before bringing poults to your farm. When the poults first arrive, you can dip their beaks in the water and make sure they start eating soon after settling in. One gallon chick waterer will be best for watering the baby poults. Don’t use buckets, open dishes or pans of water. Because the baby poults may fall in, get chilled and die or even drown. You can use red plastic chick feeders which have oval shaped openings through which the poults can reach the feed. You can also use the bottom half of an egg carton as a first feeder for poults. You can use a wooden or metal feeder after a few days. Hanging feeders tend to conserve feed. Just ensure that the bottom of the poults feeder is within comfortable reach of the poults beaks. Don’t use pails of feed. Because besides spilling it, the baby poults can all climb in on top of each other and this can cause hurting themselves.feeding and watering turkeys, feeding turkeys, turkey feeders, turkey waterer

Feeding and Watering Adult Turkeys
Switch to a metal waterer (five gallon will work fine) or a nipple watering system when the poults grow. As turkeys are larger in size and strong, so ensure that the waterer is sturdy and rugged. Larger feeder that can hold about 50 pound feed is ideal for adult turkeys. Hanging feeder is good. Some people also use range feeder that is a trough style. In either case, ensure that the edge of the feeder is at the level of the turkeys’ backs so that they can reach the feed easily, but don’t waste too much on the floor. Keep some coarse sand or fine gravel if you let your turkeys to access pasture. They use the grit for digesting their food. Most likely they can find this right on the ground mixed with the soil.

On an average, adult turkeys will eat as much as fifty percent of their intake from pasture or range. Range is grass that is four to six inches long. Turkeys like to eat the growing tips of the grass. Accessing your birds to pasture will reduce the feeding costs. Along with regular feeds and pasture feeds, turkeys will also enjoy kitchen or garden scraps. Usually turkeys like tomatoes, sweet corn, summer squash, lettuce and so on.

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Turkey Housing and Fencing http://www.roysfarm.com/turkey-housing-and-fencing/ http://www.roysfarm.com/turkey-housing-and-fencing/#comments Sun, 11 Jan 2015 09:54:44 +0000 http://www.roysfarm.com/?p=2985 Turkey housing and fencing is almost similar to poultry housing system. But turkeys require slightly different housing and fencing setup than that of chicken housing and fencing system. Turkeys like to access outdoors regardless of the weather. Although you should not let them to access outdoors until they reach eight to twelve weeks of age. […]

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Turkey housing and fencing is almost similar to poultry housing system. But turkeys require slightly different housing and fencing setup than that of chicken housing and fencing system. Turkeys like to access outdoors regardless of the weather. Although you should not let them to access outdoors until they reach eight to twelve weeks of age. Because before this age they will not be safe on pasture. Before this age, you should keep your birds inside a brooder (if possible with access to a sun porch). However, here we are describing about turkey housing and fencing system and requirements.

Turkey Housing and Pen Requirements
Turkeys require a comfortable and clean housing system. So ensure all required facilities for your birds. You need to provide your turkeys with a roosting area with a roof, once they are big enough and able to live outside. The roosting area must have to have good protection facilities from predators. They need access to fresh pasture or range (range is grass that is four to six inches long). Turkeys also require a place to dust bathe and roosting place for flying up into at night. 75 * 75 square feet space will be sufficient enough for up to 12 turkeys.

Roosts for Turkeys
For raising turkeys, you need to build roosts for your birds. If you are raising numerous turkeys, then you can build a set of roosts for your birds. Keep the set of roosts all at the same height. This will prevent fighting among them for the top spots. For making the roosts movable, the set of roosts can be either on skids or on wheels. Moveable roosts keep manure from building up in one spot inside the turkey housing system. A lightweight fiberglass or metal panel roof will be fine and it will keep your birds out of the weather. Wood is an ideal construction material of roosts for turkeys. You can also use electrical conduit on top of wooden skids. This will keep the pen lightweight and easily moved. Stake down the roost if it is very lightweight so that it can’t blow over or away. For housing 20 turkeys a 5feet by 8feet roost is enough.

Turkey Fencing
As turkeys are big in size and good flyers, so the fencing should be as high as possible. The fencing have to be at least four feet high. If you want to avoid flying, then trim their wing feathers. And thus your birds will stay inside happily unless something disturbs them. You can top the fence with netting if you don’t want to trim the wing. This will help to protect them from other birds and also prevent escape. You can use electric poultry netting for temporary fencing. Use woven wire fencing and wooden posts or metal T-posts for building permanent enclosure. Turkeys can be turned out onto pasture with cattle and will scratch and pick corn and other undigested grains out of the cow manure, spreading it and improving pasture. They will also help for improving pasture by eating pest weeds such as nettles, dock, and chicory. Fox, raccoons, weasels and neighborhood dogs etc. are some common predators of turkeys. So ensure the fencing is flush to the ground and sturdy so that the turkeys are protected from such predators.Turkey Fencing, turkey housing, fencing for turkeys, turkey housing and fencing

Breeding Turkey Housing
Breeding turkeys require special care and management. That’s why they need different type of housing. For proper breeding purpose, a more solid and permanent house will work fine. Make a good space for broody with solid sides to hatch out poults. You can make such space within the larger turkey housing system or separately from the main house. Divide the breeding turkey house into at least two separate space for keeping hens and toms separately. You can let out hens for a few hours every day to graze, then let them back inside and let the toms out to graze. Feeding something is a good way to get them to return to their house. Breeding turkeys also require access to pasture. So ensure that your breeding birds have access to pasture. About half of an adult turkey’s diet will be made up of grass and plants from pasture. So allowing the birds to pasture is also a good way for reducing feeding costs.

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Turkey Breeds http://www.roysfarm.com/turkey-breeds/ http://www.roysfarm.com/turkey-breeds/#comments Sat, 10 Jan 2015 14:40:47 +0000 http://www.roysfarm.com/?p=2975 There are many turkey breeds available throughout the world. But not nearly as many turkey breeds as there are chicken breeds or duck breeds. Although, there are still enough varieties to choose from. Some of these breeds are good for commercial meat production purpose, some are good for enhancing beauty of your home and some […]

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There are many turkey breeds available throughout the world. But not nearly as many turkey breeds as there are chicken breeds or duck breeds. Although, there are still enough varieties to choose from. Some of these breeds are good for commercial meat production purpose, some are good for enhancing beauty of your home and some turkey breeds are good as pets. For commercial purpose, most of the farmers used to raise turkeys for meat production. However, you should learn about various types of turkey breeds. Here we are describing about some common and popular turkey breeds.

Beltsville Small White
Beltsville small white turkeys were developed in the 1930s. They are similar in size as the Midget Whites. But Beltsville small white turkeys have wider breasts than the Midget Whites. Beltsvile small white turkeys make a nice table bird but are blander than Midgets or some other heritage birds. They are prolific layers and mature hens are good sitters and can hatch eggs well. Although, they are not very social compared to other heritage turkey breeds.Beltsville Small White Turkey

Black Turkey
Black turkey is a domestic turkey breed. It was domesticated from Mexican wild turkeys brought back to Europe by the first Spanish explorers who visited the USA. Black turkeys have been around since the 1500s and their plumage is black. This breed is available in many European nations.Black Spanish Turkey

Blue Slate
Blue slate is a domestic turkey breed. They have slate gray color plumage. They are lighter birds and are also sometimes called Lavender turkeys. Actually slate turkey breed may be any number of shades between white and pure black. They are among the beautiful heritage turkey breeds. Adult Blue Slate hen can weight about 14 pounds and an adult tom can weight about 23 pounds.Blue Slate Turkey

Bourbon Reds
Bourbon Red turkeys are very attractive birds for their beautiful red plumage. They are also known and popular for a full flavor, delicious meat and are considered as one of the best tasting heritage turkey breeds. This breed came from their origin in Bourbon county, Kentucky. They were first bred there during the 1800s. A mature Bourbon hen weights about 12 pounds and a mature tom can reach about 23 pounds.Bourbon Red Turkey

Broad-Breasted Whites
Broad-Breasted white turkeys are modern turkey breed which are raised commercially in farms. They are available in almost every country around the globe. They have maximum conversion ratio of feed to meat in shortest possible time (like broiler chicken breeds) and very suitable for commercial turkey farming business. Although, there are some problems with Broad-Breasted white turkeys. They can’t fly or walk. They are prone to diseases like other factory farm raised poultry birds and they can’t reproduce without artificial insemination. They also don’t taste too good like other turkey breeds. They are only suitable for factory farm production purpose.Broad Breasted White Turkey

Midget White
Midget White turkeys are relatively a new heritage breed. Researchers at the University of Massachusetts developed this turkey breed in the 1960s. They are a cross of Broad-Breasted whites and Royal Palm. They are smaller in size and are known for their deep, delicious flavor. Midget White turkeys are calm in nature and do well raising poults (because the Midget White hens are small and they can become good fence-jumpers). A mature Midget White hen weights about 8 to 12 pounds and a mature tom weights about 16 to 20 pounds.Midget White Turkey

Narragansett
Narragansett turkeys were the staple of the New England turkey scene before factory farmed turkeys became the norm (they are originally from Rhode Island). On an average, mature Narragansett hens weight about 18 pounds and toms weight about 30 pounds.Narragansett Turkey

Standard Bronze
Standard Bronze is one of the largest heritage turkey breeds. They have also been the most popular turkey breeds in American history. Bronzes were originally a cross between the native wild turkeys (discovered by Europeans) in America and the turkeys brought to the colonies by Europeans. Among the Standard Bronze varieties, the Broad-Breasted Bronze is the most commercially raised variety and most have been bred by artificial insemination since the 1960s. But this variety was replaced by the Broad-Breasted White at that time. Because white feathers of Broad-Breasted White turkeys led to a cleaner looking and they become most commercially acceptable turkey breed. On an average, an adult hen weights about 16 pounds and a tom can reach about 25 pounds. Although birds which are available nowadays may be smaller than this.Standard Bronze Turkeys

Royal Palm
Royal Palm is a very beautiful, striking turkey breed. Actually, they were bred for their good looks. They have white and black plumage. They were breed not for commercial purpose. Because they are smaller in size than most other heritage varieties. They are mostly raised for exhibition or enhancing beauty of home or farm. Although, they are suitable for meat production for family consumption purpose. Royal Palm are active turkey breed that forage extensively, they can control insects well and are also good flyers. Royal Palm hens weight about 10 pounds and toms weight about 16 pounds.Royal Palm Turkey

White Holland
White Holland turkeys were bred in Holland. This turkey breed migrated to the USA with early settlers to the country. And they were popular as meat bird in the 1800s. White Holland turkeys are calm in nature and good setters and mothers. But they sometimes break their eggs because the hens are so heavy. A mature White Holland hen can weight up to 20 pounds and a mature tom can weight up to 30 pounds.White Holland Turkey

Heritage Turkey Breeds
Heritage breed is a livestock term, applied to animals that have been bred over time to be best adapted to local conditions. These heritage breeds can resist disease and are able to survive very well in harsher environmental conditions. There are few heritage turkey breeds available to choose from. These breeds are the most popular and common for commercial turkey farming purpose. There are thirteen recognized heritage turkey breeds available.

These are the common turkey breeds. Choose any depending on your raising purpose.

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How To Start Raising Turkeys http://www.roysfarm.com/how-to-start-raising-turkeys/ http://www.roysfarm.com/how-to-start-raising-turkeys/#comments Sun, 28 Dec 2014 14:43:40 +0000 http://www.roysfarm.com/?p=2918 Raising turkeys is fun and obviously a profitable business nowadays. Most of the people raise turkeys for the purpose of meat production. Although some people like to keep a or a few turkeys as pet or for increasing beauty of their home or backyard. If you are willing to raise some turkeys as pets or […]

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Raising turkeys is fun and obviously a profitable business nowadays. Most of the people raise turkeys for the purpose of meat production. Although some people like to keep a or a few turkeys as pet or for increasing beauty of their home or backyard. If you are willing to raise some turkeys as pets or for business purpose, then follow this step by step guide about how to start raising turkeys.

Determine Your Purpose Raising Turkeys
Before starting, determine the purpose of raising turkeys. You can raise turkeys as pets or commercially for business purpose. Ask yourself should you raise turkeys or why should you raise turkeys? This is very important and definitely the first question to ask yourself. Do you have enough facilities for raising turkeys? Can you sell your products easily in you local market. And many more questions to think about before starting. Turkeys will be right for your farm if you have enough facilities for growing and marketing. Although if you raise a few turkeys as pet, then there are nothing to worry about. If you have previous experience of raising chickens, ducks, guinea fowl etc. for eggs or meat then you can raise turkeys also. Raising turkeys is similar to chickens, but turkeys require a bit more babying (especially young turkeys) than chickens. Turkeys are also good as pets. They are very social with humans. Actually, much more humans than chickens. Young turkeys are called poults and a mature male turkey is called tom.

Turkey Breeds
There are many turkey breeds available throughout the world. Broad-breasted white turkeys are the most common breed raise commercially in farms. The turkey meat we eat are mostly broad-breasted whites (although pasture or free range turkey will taste more flavorful than the commercial farm production variety). White Holland and Standard Bronze turkeys are also popular turkey breeds for meat production. Broad-breasted Whites and Bronzes are not actual breeds. They are just a non-standardized commercial strain used for commercial meat production purpose in farms. But Standard Bronzes and White Hollands are recognized and original breeds. Narragansetts and Bourbon Reds are heritage turkey breeds. They are medium sized, striking birds that excel at foraging and pest control. Royal Palm is a smaller sized turkey breed with 10 to 16 pounds body weight. They are very beautiful and different-looking birds. Broad-Breasted Whites, Standard Bronze and White, White Hollands etc. are suitable breed for commercial turkey farming purpose.raising turkeys, how to start raising trukeys, how to raise turkeys, turkey farming

Caring Poults
Day-old or baby turkeys are called poults. Caring poults is very important part of turkey farming. Usually, you have to start raising and caring poults in the spring. Setup a brooder area for the poults (just like the brooder for chickens). There are lots of activities involved here. Your previous chicken farming experience will help much. Temperature management is also very important for poults. You need to keep the temperature of poults brooder area between 90° and 100° Fahrenheit for the first week. Then gradually lower the temperature by 5° Fahrenheit each week. You can easily decrease the temperature in the poults brooder area by raising the lams. You can feed the poults with commercial chick starter feed.

Housing and Fencing Turkeys
For raising turkeys commercially, you need to build a good housing system with all facilities available. About 5 to 8 square feet housing space is required per turkey bird. Always keep your turkey house dry and clean and ensure sufficient flow of fresh air inside the house. Some people like to raise turkeys in free range system where they are free to live and browse outside. You can also raise them in a large fenced pen with a movable roost assembly (like a movable chicken coop). 4 to 6 inches long short grass is the best range for raising turkeys. Although you can have Kentucky and red clover in the range. As those are good grasses for turkeys. Make a strong fence around your range so that you can keep your birds free from predators such as coyotes, raccoons, foxes etc. Woven wire fencing is strong enough for preventing your birds from such predators. Electrified poultry netting is also a great choice.

Feeding and Watering Turkeys
Adequate and quality feeding is very important for raising turkeys. Turkeys require more protein in their regular feed than chickens. For proper growth and better production, poults need about 28 percent protein in their feed and adult birds need about 20 percent protein in their regular feed. A mature turkey consume about 1 pound of feed daily. You can purchase ready-made commercial turkey feed from the market. Along with quality feeding, ensure availability of sufficient amount of clean and fresh water. 100 turkeys will need about 65 liters of water daily. Automatic poultry waterer and feeder are good choice for feeding and watering turkeys. Clean the feeder and waterer on a regular basis.

Preventing Turkey Diseases And Other Health Problems
Disease and other health problems are also common in turkeys like other poultry birds. And sometimes bad things happen and you need to learn how to prevent the birds. So, learn more about preventing diseases and health problems before they arise. As we know ‘prevention is better than cure’. So take proper care of your birds. Good housing, proper ventilation, fresh air circulation system and providing fresh and clean water and feed are the easiest ways for raising turkeys and keeping them free from health problems. Don’t raise turkeys and chickens together. Ensure raising them separately from chickens and other poultry birds. Give your birds enough roosting space and if possible pasture/range. Also protect the turkeys from predators.

Raising turkeys is fun and profitable at the same time. Before starting commercial turkey production business, we recommend visiting some farms for learning more practically. For breeding purpose keep 1 tom (male turkey) for each 10 hens.

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Stall Fed Goat Farming http://www.roysfarm.com/stall-fed-goat-farming/ http://www.roysfarm.com/stall-fed-goat-farming/#comments Mon, 08 Dec 2014 16:26:22 +0000 http://www.roysfarm.com/?p=2848 Before detailed discussion, let me first explain ‘what is stall fed goat farming system’? Stall fed is such a goat farming system where goats are kept inside the shed or house and not allowed to graze outside. Inside the shed or house, the goats are cared and kept separated depending on their age, breed, sex […]

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Before detailed discussion, let me first explain ‘what is stall fed goat farming system’? Stall fed is such a goat farming system where goats are kept inside the shed or house and not allowed to graze outside. Inside the shed or house, the goats are cared and kept separated depending on their age, breed, sex and weight. Stall fed goat farming system is becoming popular day by day. It’s pretty new system and has many advantages compared to traditional goat farming system. High profit, fast growth, less care etc. are some main advantages of stall fed goat farming system. If you are planing for starting a goat farm project in a controlled but professional manner, then stall fed goat farming system is the most practical and the best system to follow. Here we are trying to discuss more about stall fed goat farming system.

Why Stall Fed Goat Farming Method?
Before discussing more about stall fed goat farming method, we are describing some advantages of this goat farming system.

  • Easy to care and require less space.
  • Better collection and utilization of manure. You can properly collect and utilize the manure for producing greens or crops (or use for any other purposes).
  • Quantity and Quality of Feed can be differentiated according to the Stage and Nutritional Requirement of different age groups of goats.
  • You can prevent unwanted mating which ensures proper breeding and production.
  • You can keep your farm’s record easily.
  • Wastage of energy  during grazing is avoided.
  • Diseases are less. Disease transmission is prevented from outside animals and outside plants. And better control and reduction of parasitic re-infestation.
  • In stall feeding goat farming system goats are free from harmful and wild animals and predators.
  • Overall, goats gain better body weight, grow healthier and become more healthy and farmers can gain more profit in stall fed goat farming system compared to grazing or traditional goat rearing system.

How to Start Stall Fed Goat Farming
Stall feed goat farming system is most suitable for meat production purpose. That means, this system makes more profit if you plan for commercial meat production business. Here we are describing about the starting process of stall fed goat farming system.

Breed Selection
In stall fed goat farming system, you have to select those goat breeds which are highly meat productive. Boer, Spanish, Kiko, Pygmy, Black Bengal, Sirohi, Frisian etc. are some meat producing goat breeds and are suitable for stall fed goat farming system. Whichever breeds you select, don’t forget to select and purchase disease free and quality goats. It will be better if you can purchase does aged between 5-15 months and bucks aged between 5-7 months. Always try to purchase animals from other farm near your area. In case of purchasing from any livestock market, be wise and monitor goat’s health and all other related aspects perfectly.

Housing
An adult goat needs about 10 square feet housing space in stall fed goat farming system. The house can be build of either wood, bamboo or concrete. Make proper facilities for cleaning the house. If possible make a drain inside the house. Make big windows so that fresh air can flow inside the house during summer. Cover the house at night with hessian during the winter season and keep some straw, hay or wood shavings in the floor for providing warmth.stall fed goat farming, stall feeding goat farming, stall feeding goat farming system, rearing goats in stall fed system

Making the Goats Accustomed to Stay Inside House
Don’t keep the goats inside the house for all the day after purchasing. For the first time, let the goats graze in the field 6-8 hours daily and keep them confined for rest of the day and provide them sufficient food and clean water. Do this for 1-2 weeks and gradually decrease grazing time. And then your goats will be accustomed inside house. But if your goats are used to stay inside the house after their birth then this method is not necessary (you can easily raise them in stall feeding system).

Caring Kids
Clean the body of kids after their birth and immediately feed them colostrum (mother’s first milk). Colostrum is highly nutritious and very effective for kids. If anyhow you can’t feed colostrum, then you can use colostrum replacer which is available in the market. You have to feed the kids 10-12 times a day for the first few days or week. Clean and sterilize feeder, nipples or other required feeding equipment with boiled hot water. A goat kid with 1-1.5 kg body weight needs about 250-350 grams milk daily. Increase the amount of milk according to their body weight. You can wean the kids after 2-3 months. Start introducing greens and supplementary feeds when the kids reach one month of age.

Feeding
Goats usually eat 4-5% food daily of their total body weight. Ensure 60-80% of their daily foods are containing fiber (grass, leaves, hay etc.). And provide them 20-40% supplementary goat feed. A growing castrated buck needs about 1-1.5 kg green feeds and 200-250 gram supplementary feed daily. A doe about 25 kg body weight with 2-3 kids will need about 1.5-2.5 kg greens and 350-450 grams of supplementary feeds daily. An adult breeding buck needs about 1.5-2.5 kg greens and about 200-300 grams of supplementary feeds daily. Here is the general mix of supplementary goat feed for stall fed goat farming system.

Feed Ingredients Percentage (%)
Broken Rice/Wheat/Maize 12.00
Flour, Wheat/Rice Bran 47.00
Pea Bran 16.00
Soybean/Sesame/Coconut/Mustard Cake 20.00
Dried Fish Powder 1.50
Dicalcium Phosphate 2.00
Salt 1.00
Vitamin Mineral Premix 0.50
Metabolic Energy (MJ/kg) 10.00
Metabolic Protein (grams/kg) 62.00

Cultivate Grass For Goats
Grasses are best source of greens for goats. If you cultivate grass in your own land, then it will decrease feeding cost and increase the quality of your goats. Alfalfa, Bahiagrass, Bromegrass, Clover, Fescue, Millet, Ryegrass, Timothy etc. are considered as the best grass for goats. Napier, Splendida, Andropogon etc. are also some highly productive grass and suitable for goats which are raised in stall feeding system. You can cultivate any of the above grass in your land which will provide you continuous grass supply throughout the year. If possible, cultivate various types of grasses. Doing this will make a variety in your goat’s regular diet. In stall fed goat farming system, you can also feed your goats hay mixed with urea and molasses. Read what to feed goats in stall feeding system for details.

Caring Breeding Bucks
Keep enough buck in your farm for breeding purpose. Usually, 1 buck is sufficient enough for breeding 25+ does. Castrate other bucks in your farm which are not necessary for breeding purposes. Castrate the bucks within 2-4 weeks after their birth. You can feed your breeding bucks with greens only when you are not using them for breeding. But during breeding time provide them 200-500 grams of supplementary feeds (may vary depending on the goat breeds) daily along with sufficient amount of greens. Germinated chickpeas is very effective for breeding bucks. You can feed your buck about 10 grams of germinated chickpeas daily. Don’t let your breeding bucks become fatty.

Health Management
Deworm the goats twice a year (once at beginning of rainy season and another at the beginning of winter season). Vaccinate them timely and keep contact with a veterinarian in your area. Vaccinate the goats for Enterotoxemia after 3 days of birth (1st dose) and after 15-20 days of birth (2nd dose). Vaccinate for PPR at their age of 4 month and vaccinate for goat pox at the age of 5 months. Diseases and other health problems can be solved by proper care and treatment.So, always try to take good care of your goats.

Other Management
Always bring healthy and disease free goats in your farm. If you bring new goats in your farm, then keep the goats separated for 15 days and take proper care. Introduce the new goats with other goats in your herd after keeping them separated for 15 days. If you notice the new goats are healthy and diseases free, then vaccinate them PPR vaccine after 15 days and introduce them with the herd. If there are any infected goat in your herd, then separate the infected goat as soon as possible and take extra care. Clean the goat house on a regular basis. Wash the goats with 0.5% malathion solution after every 5-6 months. This will keep the goats free from skin diseases.

Breeding Management
Does/female goats become suitable for breeding within their 7-8 months of age (when they reach 12-13 kg body weight). Introduce the does with bucks when they are in heat (usually, after 12-14 hours). For example, if the heat period starts in the morning, then bring her to the buck at the afternoon. After successful breeding, the does become pregnant and give birth of kids after 142-158 days. Always choose healthy and disease free bucks for better result in goat breeding.

Marketing
In proper care, quality feeding and good management the goats become suitable for marketing within their 12-15 months of age (may vary depending on goat breeds). You can sell either live goats or goat meat. Set your marketing strategies before starting the farm.

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How Often Do Goats Need Milking? http://www.roysfarm.com/how-often-do-goats-need-milking/ http://www.roysfarm.com/how-often-do-goats-need-milking/#comments Thu, 25 Sep 2014 17:23:41 +0000 http://www.roysfarm.com/?p=2562 A regular goat milking routine is a must when you are managing a herd of dairy goats. So, it’s important to know ‘how often do goats need milking’. Pain and discomfort can caused to your goats due to waiting too long for milking a lactating doe. Actually, the frequency of milking a dairy goat depends […]

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A regular goat milking routine is a must when you are managing a herd of dairy goats. So, it’s important to know ‘how often do goats need milking’. Pain and discomfort can caused to your goats due to waiting too long for milking a lactating doe. Actually, the frequency of milking a dairy goat depends on various factors. Milking frequency depends on the amount of milk you would like to keep for yourself, whether or not you are trying to stop production, and how long it has been since your doe first freshened and obviously your business. On an average estimation, more than 460 million goats throughout the world produce about 4.5 million tons of milk per year. However, here we are trying to discuss more about the topic ‘how often do goats need milking’.

Running Dry
Never stop milking a doe suddenly, if you are willing to encourage her to stop producing. Doing that will cause extreme pain. Help your goat’s milk supply dry up instead. Decrease the amount of grain in your milking doe’s diet. Decreasing the amount of grain will discourage your doe’s body from producing milk. Begin milking your goat once every other day for two weeks, once you notice milk production is decreasing. After that milk once every three days for another week. At this point, milk production of your does should be very slow (or have stopped altogether). And it’s the safe method for you to quit milking.how often do goats need milking, how often do goats have to be milked, milking goat, milking a goat, milking a goat by hand

Nursing the Kids
Milk your does once per day, if you allow your goat’s kids to nurse part-time. Keep the kids separated from their mother at night. But make sure the kids have access to fresh hay, grain and sufficient clean water. In the morning, milk your does and then allow the kids to nurse throughout the day. Depending on breeds, dairy goats produce about one pound to a gallon of milk daily. You can expect half production, if you separate the kids at night and take only the morning milk. You should keep an eye on your doe’s udder while her kids are nursing. If your does are nursing on one side only (leaving the second half full), then release some of the milk by hand to alleviate discomfort. You can milk your doe once per day, if she has only one kid. You can also leave her kid with her all the time and milk once. Usually, a healthy doe will produce sufficient milk for both of you and her kids. You need to separate the kids at night to get milk, if your does have twins or more kids.

Peak Production
Your goats will begin lactating, after they give birth to their kids. Most of the commercial dairy goat farmers remove kids from their mother and start bottle-feeding them by using milk replacer or any formula. You can keep all the milk your does produce with such approach. The peak production time of your goats will begin two months after the birth of their kids and then slowly taper off from there. Milk your does after every 12 hours during peak production time.

Success Secrets
You can use a stanchion while milking your goats or milk by traditional methods. Using a stanchion will ease pressure on your back and simplify the milking process. A stanchion is a metal or wooden platform for your does to stand on while you milk. Some stanchions come with head gates, which secure a doe’s head and keeps her from jumping off the platform. During milking your goats, you can feed them grain or hay. Doing this will encourage them to stand still during milking. And don’t forget to wash your doe’s udders with warm water. Warm water with 110 degrees Fahrenheit temperature will be comfortable for your goats. Dip the teats in a cleansing solution designed for lactating animals after you’ve finished. Doing this will help to prevent bacteria from entering the teat and decreases the likelihood of mastitis. For keeping hair and dirt from falling into the milk, partially cover the pail while milking.

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Goats and Parasites http://www.roysfarm.com/goats-and-parasites/ http://www.roysfarm.com/goats-and-parasites/#comments Wed, 24 Sep 2014 17:28:46 +0000 http://www.roysfarm.com/?p=2552 While raising goats, some people face problems with their goats and parasites. In some cases, parasites can be the biggest hurdle when raising goats. But the good news is, goats can be raised naturally without drugs for controlling parasites. Using medicines in all aspects is not wise. In some cases, you will find using medications […]

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While raising goats, some people face problems with their goats and parasites. In some cases, parasites can be the biggest hurdle when raising goats. But the good news is, goats can be raised naturally without drugs for controlling parasites. Using medicines in all aspects is not wise. In some cases, you will find using medications can harm goat’s health and cause more parasite issues. Most of the people who raise goats start by medicating regularly. Following models that will flip flop between wormers or just keep giving higher doses of the same wormer (by the suggestion of a vet most of the time). For raising goats as a business, you should have a good vet that will do them quickly for you or you should learn to do fecal exams.

Coccidia can put a goat down quickly and it’s about the hardest to handle. Most of the adult strong goats will contain an immunity to coccidia but may pass it on to young goats. When there is unsanitary wet conditions, coccidia is most easily caught. You can prevent and treat coccidia by using clover, garlic, mustard seek and pumpkin seed. Most of the worms in goat’s stomach can be easily controlled by using Diatomaceous Earth regularly. Diatomaceous Earth will cause small cuts on the worms and dry them out. Diatomaceous Earth also has a host of minerals which is needed by a healthy goat. There is also an another natural goat wormer ‘wormwood’. Wormwood will aid in removing worms from goats. It is a herb and you can easily grow indoors or in your garden or pasture and feed to your goats.

Stop buying goats frequently from the livestock market or from other farms. Emphasis on increasing the number of animals in your own herd. This is the easiest way to raise a healthy herd. Try to keep a cull and closed herd. New goats have different resistances and can throw things off. So, don’t bring in new goats when dealing with worms. If you find that some of your goats in the herd need to be medicated often, then they are either not getting the right minerals or they should be culled.

Always keep in mind that, goats will have worms and it’s natural. So, you should not try all time to get rid of them all. You should try to keep your goats healthy and in proper balance. If your goats have a worm infestation or if you have any sick goat, then they may die if wormed hard. A chemical to form in the stomach and that can kill your goats. Such condition occurs while having too many worms dieing off at the same time.

You cam make your goat’s live easier and healthier life by allowing them to eat browse, giving them clean water regularly, feeding them tasty and good quality hay and by giving them a mineral mix (such as Crystalyx for goats).

Look at there the inner eye lids (Famacha test). This is a good practice to get into. You can find out if you need your goats to worm harder or that things are going well depending on the color of the inner eye lid. On a few random goats perform this test regularly. You can do the test to all of your goats when it’s time to grooming or feet trimming.

You can provide Diatomaceous Earth to your goats daily in water or on hay. Black strap molasses has many minerals and will give your goats a boost. Start this before you have a worm infestation, because black strap molasses will take longer to show results. Remember worms don’t want to kill their host, they live off of them so try and keep a balance. If your goats are dying, then they may have a secondary issue. Could be from host of other issues, pneumonia or from poor house keeping. Learn more about goats and parasites from any expert vet if you want to raise goats naturally.

And also remember, what works for someone’s farm may not work for your or another farm. So, a variation may be need. No one is perfect and no one fully knows how to raise goats perfectly. Although, there are some common things that need to be done. Ensure that you supplement your goat’s feed with good hay, quality minerals and clean water. Also ensure a clean environment for your goats. Always keep the healthiest goats in your herd and you will have a healthy herd which will directly increase your earnings and overall production of your farm.

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