Telling the differences between male and female quail is fairly easy. But the birds need to be over 3 weeks of age. After their 3 weeks of age they will have enough adult feathers to make the distinction. There are many quail breeds available, but the differences in gender are generally the same in all quail. Here we are talking about the differences between male and female quail of Pharaoh or Japanese quail. Although the differences in gender are generally the same in all quail.
Size of The Birds
First of all look at the size of the quails. The female quails are slightly heavier than the males. Average body weight of the males is between 100 and 140 grams. And the female quail’s average body weight is between 112 and 156 grams.
Look at the Breast
You can examine the breast of your birds. It is very easy to tell the differences between male and female quail if you have wild colored quails such as Japanese, Italian and Red Cap quails. Examine the color and speckles of the quail’s breast. The females generally have light colored breast such as cream or pale brown with brown speckles. But the males have dark-colored breast such as reddish-brown and they will not have speckles.
Examine the Underside
In case of certain quail breed, it is pretty tough to tell the differences between male and female quail by the color and pattern. For example, it’s pretty tough to find Texas quail’s gender. In such case you have to examine the underside of the birds.
Hold the quail’s body securely, but don’t hold the bird by it’s legs. Because the quail’s legs are very fragile. Have a gentle but firm grip on your quail, and then turn it upside-down. And then examine the cloaca. Blow the feathers underneath the tail to expose the cloaca. If you see a small bulge, then it’s a male quail. But if you can’t see a bulge just by looking at the cloaca, place one finger above the opening of the cloaca and put another finger below the opening. Gently press down, and if a bulge pops up then it’s a male. Foam may also come out of the cloaca when you press it, which also indicates that it’s a male. But if there is no bulge and no foam when you press the cloaca, then the quail is a female.
Difference in Behavior
It is also possible to tell the differences between male and female quail by observing their behavior. The male quails are generally more aggressive towards each other, while the females are generally more calm. The male quails will attack each other unless they are kept in a large space with lots of hiding spots.
Listen to their Voice
It is also possible to tell the differences between male and female quail by listening their voice. The male quails will often call to the female quails, but sometimes the female has a call that sounds similar in some breeds of quails. The males generally call a lot during mating season, and they are loud. Males have a characteristic crow best described as a clicking castanet. And the males will crow through the night during the mating season for attracting the females. The female quails chirps but do not crow.
Observe the Birds During the Mating Season
You can also observe your birds during their mating season. The females generally build the nest for laying eggs. But in some varieties the males also build the nest. So you should not rely on this method for determining the gender of the birds.
However, these are the common tricks of determining the quail’s gender. Hope this will help you!