Goat farming is not a new enterprise. Rearing goats is a profitable business. Goat has been rearing since the time immemorial. Generally goat farming means rearing goats for the purpose of harvesting milk, meat and fiber. At present, goat farming has become a profitable business with a very low investment because of its multi functional utility. It keeps a great contribution to the economy and nutrition of a country. Goat is a multifunctional animal. From goat many kinds of products are produced such as goat milk is used to produce full cream goat powder, skimmed goat milk powder, goat butter, goat milk cream, fresh goat milk etc. Goat meat is a big source of meat which is very testy and healthy. Besides, goat’s wool is used in many purposes and skin of goat plays a vital role in leather industry.
Benefits of Goat Farming:
There are some benefits of rearing goats with other household animals. The goat has been considered as a cow (mini cow) of poor people because of it’s immense contribution in rural economy and national income. Goat products like milk and meat is not only nutritious and easily digestible but also a great source of regular income source for poor, landless and marginal farmers. Being a small sized animal it can be easily maintained by women and children. For rearing goats some tasks like feeding, milking and caring dose not require much equipment, capital, labor or hard work. The main benefits of rearing goats are described bellow.
- Starting goat farming business needs low initial invest.
- Because of small body size no need huge area for goat housing.
- Usually goats are friendly with nature.
- Goats are plentiful breeders and reach sexual maturity at the age of 10-12 month and give birth kids within a short time(some breeds produce numerous kids at once).
- There is less risk of goat farming in drought prone area than any other livestock farming.
- Both male and female goats have equal value.
- No religious taboo against goat farming and meat consumption.
- Goat meat and milk are cholesterol free and easily digestible.
- Goat milk is used to made various food and easy to digest than milk of cow.
- Goat farming has created a potential way of employment for unemployed people.
- Goats are multi purpose animal. They can produce milk, meat, skin, fibre and manure at a same time.
- There is no need of a high end housing system for goats. They can easily share their living place with their owners or his/her other livestock.
- Goats are very suitable for mixed farming with other domestic animal.
- Diseases are less in goats than other domestic animals.
- Goats are easily available, comparatively cheaper to maintain and always have a friendly disposition.
- They are capable of adopting themselves with almost all types of agro climatic environments or conditions. They can tolerate high and low temperature throughout the world and live happily. They also can tolerate hot climate more than other animals.
- According to the investment per unit they produce more than other domestic animals.
- Goats are generally smaller in size but reach slaughter age faster.
- Goats are called the “foster mother of human”. Because their milk is considered as the best milk for human nutrition than any other species of livestock. And their milk is low cost, nutritious, wholesome and easily digestible. Their milk also has lesser allergic problems. And used as a ayurvedic medicine for personas ailing with diabetes, asthma, cough etc.
- Goat milk is suitable for preparing various milk products.
- Goats can be milked as often as required. This also prevent refrigeration costs and milk storage problems.
- The farmer can use the manure of goats as high quality fertilizer in crop field.
There are different types of goat breeds for rearing in the goat farm like pygmy goats, dwarf goats of Nigeria, dairy goats, cashmere goats, black bengal goat, mountain goats, boer goats around the world. Some are famous for goat meat and some breeds are famous for goat milk. Indian goats are also highly productive goat breeds. Pygmy goats originated in Africa. It is mainly used in the program and goat show. A lot of people rear them instead of meat and milk. Nigerian dwarf goats and pygmy goats are of the same origin. Dwarf goats born in different colors like black, chocolate, gold, color, etc. It is a major factor that makes them so popular. Dairy goats are raised mainly for milk. It can also be displayed at trade shows. The association of dairy goats, they are six types, Nubians, Lamanchas, Alper, Oberhasli, Saanen and Togenburgs. Cashmere goats are one type of goat which are popular for wool. For this reason it is called wool of the goat. Mountain Goats are blunt, square looking. It is thought that it is covered with soft white, woolly, dense undercoat. Boer goats originated in South Africa.They are light in color and body to find the characteristic red head. Some studies say that Boer goats are very expensive and demand exceeds supply which attracts investors. However, choosing the right breeds for commercial goat farming will ensure high profit.
Housing is an important factor for profitable goat farming business. A good quality goat house is highly recommended for better production. A good house not only give shelter and protects them from predators but also prevent them from various types of goat diseases. Always keep the house neat, clean and dry. Make proper ventilation and drainage system inside the house. Also ensure the availability of sufficient fresh air and light inside the house.
Well goat feed management is very essential for commercial goat rearing. Goat is not a carnivorous. They don’t eat other animals. Usually goats prefer to eat grasses, plants, shrubs, weeds and herbs. Besides these feeds, goat also need energy, portion, vitamins, fiber and water to make better from this business. It will be better if you have sufficient knowledge about what to feed goats.
Some Tips For Raising Goats:
To make a desired profit from goat rearing, a farmer should know properly how to raise goat. Here are some rules on how to raise goat for profit.
- Always try to keep your goat healthy and strong.
- Always choose the right and high productive goat breeds.
- Try to learn more about goat farming from nearest livestock training center.
- Ensure a big area to roam them because they like to live in groups.
- Make sure the availability of all equipment which are essential for goat farms.
- To produce better milk, meat and to keep the goat free from diseases, make sure a well bred conduct.
- Provide them enough clean water, food and fresh grass.
- Be more careful about goat feed.
- Take some extra care to the pregnant and kids.
- Feed the goat some extra nutritious food during the time of mating.
- To improve goat health contact with a veterinarian regularly, if possible.
- Give salt and mineral with a lot of water during the summer season.
- Keep away from cold and rain to avoid mass death.
In short, goat farming is a traditional, profitable, risk-less and more benefited business because of its multifaceted utility. It also can be used as a tool of poverty reduction and play an important role in the economic growth of a country. Although some risks go with every business.