Goat farming is not a new enterprise. Rearing goats is a profitable business. Goat has been rearing since the time immemorial. Generally goat farming means rearing goats for the purpose of harvesting milk, meat and fiber. At present, goat farming has become a profitable business with a very low investment because of its multi functional utility. It keeps a great contribution to the economy and nutrition of a country. Goat is a multi-functional animal. From goat many kinds of products are produced such as goat milk is used to produce full cream goat powder, skimmed goat milk powder, goat butter, goat milk cream, fresh goat milk etc. Goat meat is a big source of consumable meat which is very testy, nutritious and healthy. Besides, goat’s wool is being used in many purposes and skin of goat plays a vital role in leather industry.
Benefits of Goat Farming:
There are many benefits of goat farming along with other livestock animals. The goat has been considered as poor man’s cow (mini cow) of poor people because of it’s immense contribution in rural economy and national income. Goat products like milk and meat is not only nutritious and easily digestible but also a great source of regular income for the poor, landless and marginal farmers. Being a small sized animal it can be easily maintained by women and children. For successful goat farming some common tasks like feeding, milking and caring does not require much equipment, capital, labor or hard work. The main benefits of goat farming are described below.
- Starting goat farming business needs low initial or invest.
- Because of small body size no need huge area for goat housing.
- Usually goats are friendly with nature.
- Goats are plentiful breeders and reach sexual maturity at the age of 10-12 month and give birth kids within a short time (some breeds produce numerous kids at once).
- Risks are less for goat farming in drought prone areas than any other livestock farming.
- Both male and female goats have equal value.
- No religious taboo against goat farming and meat consumption.
- Goat meat and milk are cholesterol free and easily digestible.
- Goat milk is used to make various food and easy to digest than milk of cow.
- Goat farming has created a potential way of employment for unemployed people.
- Goats are multi purpose animal. They can produce milk, meat, skin, fiber and manure at a same time.
- There is no need of a high end housing system for goats. They can easily share their living place with their owners or his/her other livestock animals.
- Goats are very suitable for mixed farming with other domestic animal.
- Diseases are less in goats than other domestic animals.
- Goats are easily available, comparatively cheaper to maintain and always have a friendly disposition.
- They are capable of adopting themselves with almost all types of agro climatic environments or conditions. They can tolerate high and low temperature throughout the world and live happily. They also can tolerate hot climate more than other animals.
- According to the investment per unit they produce more than other domestic animals. And the ROI (return of investment) ratio is very good.
- Goats are generally smaller in size but reach slaughter age faster.
- Goats are called the “foster mother of human”. Because their milk is considered as the best milk for human nutrition than any other species of livestock. And their milk is low cost, nutritious, wholesome and easily digestible. Their milk also has lesser allergic problems. And used as a ayurvedic medicine for personas ailing with diabetes, asthma, cough etc.
- Goat milk is suitable for preparing various milk products.
- Goats can be milked as often as required. This also prevent refrigeration costs and milk storage problems.
- The farmer can use the manure of goats as high quality fertilizer in crop field.
Steps For Starting Goat Farming Business:
For starting a profitable and successful goat farming business, you must have to make a proper plan and go through the plan. I am shortly describing here the necessary steps for starting goat farming business.
Always try to select a suitable farm land/area that has all required facilities for successful goat farming business. The necessary facilities for goat farming includes the followings.
- Great source of fresh and clean water.
- Availability of all types of equipment.
- Easily available food source.
- Fertile field for crop, grasses and other green plant production. Feeding green food keeps the animal healthy, productive and reduces feeding costs.
- Availability of full time labor.
- Good transportation and veterinary service.
- A market near the farm land so that you can sell your products easily and buy necessary commodities.
There are different types of goat breeds available for rearing in the goat farm like Pygmy goats, Dwarf goats of Nigeria, Cashmere goats, Black Bengal goat, Mountain goats, Boer goats around the world. Some are famous for tasty and nutritious meat and some breeds are famous for milk production. Some Indian goats are also highly productive. Pygmy goats originated in Africa. It is mainly used in the program and goat show. A lot of people rear them as pet instead of meat and milk production. Nigerian dwarf goats and pygmy goats are of the same origin. Dwarf goats are of different colors like black, chocolate, gold, color, etc. Wide variety of colors is a major factor that makes them so popular. Dairy goats are raised mainly for commercial milk production or for family consumption. They can also be displayed at trade shows. According to the association of dairy goats Nubians, Lamanchas, Alper, Oberhasli, Saanen and Togenburgs are the world famous dairy goat breed. Cashmere goats are popular for wool production. Mountain goats are blunt, square looking covered with soft white, woolly, dense undercoat. Boer goats originated in South Africa and suitable for highly meat production. Some studies say that Boer goats are very expensive and demand exceeds supply which attracts investors. However, choosing the right breeds for commercial goat farming will ensure high profit. Choose proper breed according to your desired production and geographical location. You can also visit your nearest goat farm or livestock training center to learn more about the suitable goat breeds in your area.
Housing is an important factor for profitable goat farming business. Small scale farmer generally keep their goats with their other livestock animals. But for commercial production, a good quality goat housing is highly recommended for better production. A good house not only give shelter and protects the goats from predators but also prevent them from various types of goat diseases. Always keep the house neat, clean and dry. Make proper ventilation and drainage system inside the house. Also ensure the availability of sufficient fresh air and light inside the house. Housing and goat farm design are of various types according to the production type and breed.
Well goat feed management is very essential for commercial goat farming. Goat is not a carnivorous. They don’t eat other animals. Usually goats prefer to eat grasses, plants, shrubs, weeds and herbs. Besides those feeds, goat also need energy, portion, vitamins, fiber and water for proper growth and to make better profit from this business. It will be better if you have sufficient knowledge about what to feed goats.
Care & Management:
Always take good care of your goats. Never feed them contaminated food or polluted water. Keep their house neat and clean and clean their house on a regular basis. For commercial production, keep kids, bucks and does separated for each other. Take extra care to the breeding bucks, kids and pregnant does. Keep the kids with their mother for several weeks after their birth. Avoid using same buck for mating with numerous does at same day. Vaccinate them timely for keeping them free from all types of diseases. If possible, stock some necessary vaccines and medicines and keep good relation with veterinary doctor.
Various types of viral diseases like PPR, goat pox, foot and mouth diseases and bacterial diseases like anthrax, brucelosis etc. are very harmful diseases of goat. So, proper vaccination is a must to prevent this types of diseases. The does which was not vaccinated PPR, goat pox, brucellosis vaccines before, vaccinate them at the fifth month of gestation period. Vaccinate the kids PPR vaccine when they reach 5 months of age. Always take good care of your animals and vaccinate them timely to prevent unwanted health hazard and diseases. See the chart below.
||Injection Under Skin
|Foot & Mouth Disease
||Injection Under Skin
||Injection Under Skin
Marketing is the easiest step of goat farming business. Goat products like meat and milk has a huge local and global demand and popularity. Almost all types of people like goat milk and meat. So, a good market is available in almost every place of the world. You can easily sell your products in your nearest market. Commercial producers can target the international market and export the products in foreign country.
Total Expenditure & Profit:
Total expenditure and profit from goat farming business depends on the farming system, location, breeds, feeding cost and some other factor. By good planing and proper management you can easily make goat farming business profitable. Small scale farming require less investment and profit can contribute your regular income. Large scale or commercial production require high investment and some other additional costs. See goat farming project report for some idea about the total expenditure and profit from goat farming business.
Some Essential Tips For Raising Goats:
To make desired production and profit from goat farming business, a farmer should know properly how to raise goats. Here are some tips on how to raise goat and make better profit.
- Always try to keep your goat healthy and strong.
- Always choose the right and high productive goat breeds.
- Try to learn more about goat farming from the nearest livestock training center or expert producer.
- Ensure a big area to roam them freely because they like to live in groups.
- Make sure the availability of all equipment which are essential for goat farms.
- To produce better milk, meat and to keep the goat free from diseases, make sure a well bred conduct.
- Provide them sufficient clean water, food and fresh grasses according to their daily demand.
- Be more careful about goat feeding. Never feed them contaminated food or polluted water.
- Take some extra care to the pregnant doe, breeding buck and kids.
- Feed the buck some extra nutritious food during the time of mating.
- To improve goat health contact with a veterinarian regularly, if possible.
- Give salt and mineral with a lot of water during the summer season.
- Keep you goats away from cold and rain to avoid mass death.
In short, goat farming is a traditional, profitable, risk-less and very easy business because of its multifaceted utility and fast growing rate. It also can be used as a tool of poverty reduction and play an important role in the economic growth of a country. Although some risks go with every business. Proper care and good management can ensure better production and high profit. Wish your success!